CAGE 4B839 - UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA SYSTEM
USA

UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA SYSTEM

DBA RESEARCH AND SPONSORED PROGRAMS

CAGE Code: 4B839
DUNS: 010379790
32 CAMPUS DRIVE MAIN HALL
MISSOULA MT 59812-0001
UNITED STATES

Telephone: 4062436671
Fax: 4062435739


UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA SYSTEM, DBA RESEARCH AND SPONSORED PROGRAMS is an Active Commercial Supplier with the Cage Code 4B839 and is tracked by Dun & Bradstreet under DUNS Number 010379790.

Additional Data For CAGE 4B839

SIC Code 1:8221
Status:A
Type:F
Size:E
Primary Business:N
Type of Business:N
Woman Owned:N
CAO:N63374
ADP CNT CT:N63374

USA Government Contracting Activity for 4B839

Tuesday, December 19, 2017
$45,000.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
120343: USDA FOREST SERVICE

D: DEFINITIVE CONTRACT
IGF::OT::IGF - DB MAINTENANCE&MANAGEMENT FOR POPULATION OCCURRENCE RECORDS OF THREATENED, ENDANGERED&SENSITIVE SPECIES IN MT.
B509: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- ENDANGERED SPECIES: PLANT/ANIMAL

  AG03R6C160006  
Friday, December 8, 2017
$145,516.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
UNDERSTANDING HOW SPECIES AND HABITATS ARE LIKELY TO RESPOND TO CLIMATE WARMING IS CRITICAL IN DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS. WE PROPOSE TO LINK HIGH-RESOLUTION SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING MAPPING OF FRESHWATER HABITATS WITH GENETIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND SPATIALLY EXPLICIT HYDROLOGICAL AND THERMAL MODEL OUTPUTS TO ASSESS THE VULNERABILITY OF SALMON POPULATIONS UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS AND FUTURE CLIMATE SCENARIOS. WE WILL ANSWER IMPORTANT CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT QUESTIONS REGARDING THE DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE, PHYSICAL COMPLEXITY, AND QUALITY OF FRESHWATER HABITATS AVAILABLE TO SALMON AND TROUT NOW AND UNDER PROJECTED CLIMATE CHANGE. WE WILL TRAIN ANGLERS (CROWDSOURCING) TO COLLECT IMAGES PAIRED WITH DNA SAMPLES FROM FISH TO ASSESS GENOMIC DIVERSITY AND CONNECTIVITY (GENE FLOW) AMONG MANY STREAMS AND SPECIES ACROSS THE PACIFIC RIM. THIS WORK WILL BUILD UPON AN EXISTING CONSERVATION DECISION SUPPORT WEB SYSTEM FOR WILD SALMON CONSERVATION (RAP: RIVERSCAPE ANALYSIS PROJECT; HTTP://RAP.NTSG.UMT.EDU), WHICH INCLUDES SPATIALLY EXPLICIT MAPPING OF SALMONID PHYSICAL FRESHWATER HABITATS AND PREDICTIONS OF POTENTIAL SALMON HABITATS, THEIR RELATIVE QUALITY, AND POTENTIAL VULNERABILITY. WE WILL ENHANCE THE RAP WEB SYSTEM BY IMPLEMENTING NEW SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING MEASURES OF RIPARIAN ZONE HABITAT QUALITY, AND GENETIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC INDICES OF SALMONID POPULATION VULNERABILITY DERIVED FROM LANDSCAPE GENETIC AND INDIVIDUAL-BASED SIMULATION MODELS OF POPULATION CONNECTIVITY AND ABUNDANCE. WE INITIALLY WILL FOCUS ON THE YUKON AND COLUMBIA RIVERS TO ASSESS NEW RAP METRICS ACROSS SPATIAL SCALES AND BECAUSE THE BEST AVAILABLE TIME-SERIES GENETIC AND ABUNDANCE EXIST FOR SALMONIDS IN THESE RIVERS (INCLUDING ENDANGERED CHINOOK SALMON, CHUM SALMON, AND THREATENED BULL TROUT). IN YEARS 2-4, WE WOULD ASSESS NEW RAP METRICS IN>1500 PACIFIC RIM RIVERS. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL BE USED WITH DECISION MAKERS TO IDENTIFY AND ASSESS VULNERABLE POPULATIONS, SPECIES AND ECOSYSTEMS, DESIGN LONG-TERM MONITORING PROGRAMS, INFORM FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS, AND DEVELOP CONSERVATION DELIVERY OPTIONS IN RESPONSE TO MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AB84G  
Wednesday, November 1, 2017
$9,828.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
WARMER SPRINGS AND DRIER SUMMERS ARE EXPECTED TO INCREASE THE CO2 UPTAKE OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS BY LENGTHENING THE GROWING SEASON, BUT REDUCE SUMMER UPTAKE THROUGH WATER STRESS. ONE OF THE KEY CHALLENGES IN CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE IS DETERMINING THE BALANCE OF THESE PROCESSES, HOW THEY ARE COUPLED THROUGH CARBON-WATER CYCLE INTERACTIONS, AND THE IMPACT ON ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONCENTRATIONS. THE CARBON UPTAKE RESPONSE TO SEASONAL WARMING AND DRYING IS UNCERTAIN, BUT APPEARS TO BE INCREASINGLY DEPENDENT ON AVAILABILITY OF LIQUID WATER IN SOILS, WHICH IS LIMITED PRIMARILY BY WATER SCARCITY IN WARM TEMPERATE CLIMATES AND FREEZING TEMPERATURES IN COLD NORTHERN CLIMATES, AND MODULATED BY DROUGHT AND THAWING/FREEZING PROCESSES, RESPECTIVELY. THEIR INTERACTIVE EFFECTS WITH CO2 PHOTOSYNTHETIC GAIN (GPP) AND RESPIRATION LOSS (ER) SHOWS HIGH SEASONAL, SPATIAL, AND BIOME DEPENDENCE. HERE, WE PROPOSE TO EXPLOIT AN EXPANDING SET OF MULTI-SCALE CARBON AND WATER CYCLE OBSERVATIONS WITH STATE-OF-THE-ART LAND AND ATMOSPHERE MODELS TO INVESTIGATE THE RESPONSE OF SEASONAL PHENOLOGY, CO2 EXCHANGE, AND ATMOSPHERIC CO2 TO SPRING WARMING, SOIL THAW, AND LIQUID WATER AVAILABILITY SINCE 2002. WE WILL USE A COUPLED HYDROSPHERE-BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK, FOCUSING BROADLY ON NORTH AMERICA (NA) AND SPECIFICALLY ON CLIMATE SENSITIVE SEMI-ARID AND ARCTIC-BOREAL ECOSYSTEMS. WE SEEK TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING CRITICAL SCIENCE QUESTION: HOW HAS TERRESTRIAL CARBON UPTAKE, IN PARTICULAR GPP AND ER, EVOLVED IN THE PAST DECADE, AND WHAT HAS BEEN THE IMPACT ON ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONCENTRATIONS?" OUR WORK LEVERAGES NEW AND EXISTING TOWER MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR INDUCED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE (SIF) IN NA TO EXPLOIT NASA S UNIQUE ARRAY OF SATELLITE VEGETATION REMOTE SENSING DATA TO (1) ESTABLISH THE MECHANISTIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SIF AND GPP ACROSS DIVERSE BIOMES AS A FUNCTION OF OPTIMIZED LIGHT USE EFFICIENCY (LUE) AND SIFYIELD PARAMETERS, AND (2) REFINE AND CALIBRATE EXISTING (SCIAMACHY, GOSAT, GOME-2, OCO-2) AND PLANNED (TROPOMI) SATELLITE SIF OBSERVATIONS FOR BROADER INTEGRATED ANALYSIS OF LONG TERM VARIABILITY. WE WILL INCORPORATE SIF OPTIMIZED LUE WITH OBSERVED ENVIRONMENTAL THRESHOLDS (SMAP, AMSR) AND VEGETATION CONSTRAINTS (MODIS) INTO THE SMAP CARBON MODEL (L4C) TO ELUCIDATE STRUCTURAL (EVI), FUNCTIONAL (SIF), AND ENVIRONMENTAL (SOIL MOISTURE, FREEZE/THAW, VAPOR PRESSURE DEFICIT, TEMPERATURE) CONTROLS ON SEASONAL COMPONENT CO2 FLUXES (GPP, ER) AND ANNUAL CO2 BALANCE (NEE) IN NA. WE WILL EVALUATE SMAP CO2 FLUXES AGAINST INDEPENDENT CONSTRAINTS FROM UPSCALED FLUX TOWER DATA (FLUXCOM), AND PROPAGATE TO ATMOSPHERIC CO2 FOR VALIDATION (GOSAT, OCO-2, NOAA) AND ANALYSIS OF LONG TERM (2002-2018) IAV OF CO2 ANNUAL GROWTH AND SEASONAL CYCLE AMPLITUDE. WE WILL ALSO INCORPORATE OUR FINDINGS INTO THE PROGNOSTIC COMMUNITY LAND MODEL (CLM) BY PARAMETERIZING PHENOLOGICAL PROCESSES (TIME LAG BETWEEN LEAF OUT AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC ONSET) AND TESTING THE IMPACT ON SEASONAL CO2 FLUX AND SUMMER WATER AVAILABILITY. THIS INVESTIGATION IS CAPTURED IN THREE OBJECTIVES: (1) QUANTIFY 2002-2018 INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY IN SPRING AND FALL PHENOLOGY, CO2 FLUXES, AND ATMOSPHERIC CO2 IN NORTH AMERICA ASSOCIATED WITH SPRING WARMING AND SUMMER DRYING; (2) IDENTIFY THE CRITICAL WATER AVAILABILITY THRESHOLDS THAT SHIFT THE BALANCE OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC AND RESPIRATION CO2 FLUXES IN VULNERABLE, CLIMATE SENSITIVE BIOMES; AND (3) DEMONSTRATE THE POWER OF COMBINING STRATEGICALLY COORDINATED TOWER SIF MEASUREMENTS WITH NASA SATELLITE SIF AND CO2 PRODUCTS TO MONITOR SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL GPP VARIATIONS. THE PROPOSED INVESTIGATION DEPENDS STRONGLY ON REMOTE SENSING DATA AND ANALYSIS OF LONG TERM VARIABILITY, INVOLVES MULTIPLE DISPARATE DISCIPLINES OF THE EARTH SCIENCES, AND ADDRESSES A KEY IDS THEME: PARTITIONING OF CARBON BETWEEN THE ATMOSHPERE AND BIOSPHERE
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  80NSSC17K0115  
Wednesday, November 1, 2017
$2,968.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
1203R6: USDA FOREST SERVICE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
THIRD-PARTY BULK BILLED PHONE SERVICE FROM UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA TO CARHART CENTER
D399: IT AND TELECOM- OTHER IT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS

  12034318P0024  
Tuesday, October 31, 2017
($3,957.33)
1200: Department of Agriculture
1203R6: USDA FOREST SERVICE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
CARHART CENTER NATIONAL WILDERNESS TACCOUNT # 900-13-0115 THIRD-PARTY BULK BILLED PHONE SERVICE FROM UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA TO CARHART CENTER.
D399: IT AND TELECOM- OTHER IT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS

  12034318P0002  
Wednesday, October 18, 2017
$94,916.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
120343: USDA FOREST SERVICE

D: DEFINITIVE CONTRACT
FACILITY AND SUPPORT FOR THE NORTHERN REGION UNIVERSITY (NRU)AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA EXERCISE OPT YEAR 4 IGF::OT::IGF
W099: LEASE OR RENTAL OF EQUIPMENT- MISCELLANEOUS

  AG03R6C140009  
Thursday, October 12, 2017
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
BIOMASS BURNING IS THE LARGEST GLOBAL SOURCE OF PRIMARY FINE ORGANIC AEROSOL (~50 TG/YR) AND THE SECOND LARGEST SOURCE OF REACTIVE NON-METHANE ORGANIC GASES (NMOG, ~500 TG/YR). THESE EMISSIONS HAVE MASSIVE IMPACTS ON ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, CHEMISTRY, AND CLIMATE ON LOCAL TO GLOBAL SCALES. RAPID AND VARIABLE TRANSFORMATIONS, BOTH WITHIN AND BETWEEN THESE ORGANIC POOLS, PRODUCE OZONE AND SECONDARY AEROSOL AND IMPACT COMPOSITION AND CLIMATE IN NUMEROUS OTHER WAYS. THE INFLUENCE OF BIOMASS BURNING HAS BEEN HARD TO QUANTIFY IN PART BECAUSE IMPORTANT TYPES OF BURNING ARE UNDERSAMPLED AND CASE STUDIES OF SMOKE PLUME EVOLUTION THAT ARE SUFFICIENTLY WELL-CHARACTERIZED TO CONSTRAIN MODELS HAVE BEEN DIFFICULT TO OBTAIN. RECENT NASA AIRBORNE CAMPAIGNS HAVE ADDRESSED THESE LIMITATIONS BY CAREFULLY MEASURING BOTH THE TRANSPORT HISTORY AND THE INITIAL AND EVOLVING CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SMOKE FROM IMPORTANT, PREVIOUSLY-UNDERSAMPLED TYPES OF BIOMASS BURNING SUCH AS TEMPERATE WILDFIRES AND CROP RESIDUE BURNING (I.E. AGRICULTURAL FIRES). THE COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL MEASUREMENTS INCLUDED BIOMASS BURNING TRACERS, PREVIOUSLY-UNQUANTIFIED GAS-PHASE PRECURSORS, AND SPECIATED AEROSOL FROM ADVANCED ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES. THE DATA FROM THESE CAMPAIGNS COULD GREATLY REDUCE THE UNCERTAINTY IN BIOMASS BURNING EMISSIONS AND THEIR IMPACTS ON ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, BUT REALIZING THIS POTENTIAL REQUIRES A CAREFUL, INTENSIVE ANALYSIS EFFORT. IN THIS PROJECT WE WILL PERFORM SUCH AN ANALYSIS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON THREE RECENT NASA AIRBORNE CAMPAIGNS: SEAC4RS (STUDIES OF EMISSIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, CLOUDS AND CLIMATE COUPLING BY REGIONAL SURVEYS), DC3 (DEEP CONVECTION CLOUDS&CHEMISTRY), AND DISCOVER-AQ (DERIVING INFORMATION ON SURFACE CONDITIONS FROM COLUMN AND VERTICALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS RELEVANT TO AIR QUALITY). THESE CAMPAIGNS USED STATE-OF-THE-ART ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES TO SAMPLE SMOKE FROM NUMEROUS AGRICULTURAL AND TEMPERATE WILDFIRES. THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS PROJECT (IN EXPANDED FORM) ARE: (1) TO CREATE A NEW DATASET OF NORMALIZED EXCESS MIXING RATIOS OF MANY NMOGS (AND SELECTED OTHER SPECIES) IN BIOMASS BURNING PLUMES AS FUNCTION OF FUEL AND FIRE TYPE, TRANSPORT HISTORY, AND TIME SINCE EMISSION THROUGH CAREFUL ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTED DURING SEAC4RS, DC3, AND DISCOVER-AQ. (2) TO USE THIS DATASET TO CALCULATE EMISSION FACTORS FOR MANY IMPORTANT NMOGS INCLUDING PREVIOUSLY UNDERSAMPLED FIRE TYPES, BIOMASS BURNING TRACERS, AND SEVERAL GASES NOT PREVIOUSLY MEASURED IN BIOMASS BURNING SMOKE. (3) TO IDENTIFY CASE STUDIES FROM THESE CAMPAIGNS THAT CAN BE USED TO CONSTRAIN AND IMPROVE MODELS OF THE IMPACTS OF BIOMASS BURNING ON ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, AIR QUALITY, AND CLIMATE. THE PROJECT DELIVERABLES WILL INCREMENTALLY, BUT SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCE UNCERTAINTY IN SEVERAL IMPORTANT DEGREES OF FREEDOM ASSOCIATED WITH ONE OF THE MOST COMPLICATED AND INFLUENTIAL EMISSION SOURCES ON EARTH. THIS WILL IMPROVE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION AND OUR ABILITY TO PREDICT FUTURE COMPOSITION CHANGES; BOTH OF WHICH ARE KEY GOALS OF THE NASA ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION FOCUS AREA. SPECIFICALLY, THE PROJECT WILL DECREASE UNCERTAINTY IN BOTTOM-UP MODELING OF THE ATMOSPHERE AT LOCAL TO GLOBAL SCALES AND ALSO ENABLE BETTER-CONSTRAINED TOP-DOWN ESTIMATES OF FUEL CONSUMPTION AND CO-EMITTED GREENHOUSE GASES. REDUCED UNCERTAINTY IN A MAJOR GLOBAL SOURCE SUCH AS BIOMASS BURNING WILL ALSO REDUCE UNCERTAINTY IN MANY OTHER SOURCES AND PROCESSES WITH IMPORTANT ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND CLIMATE IMPACTS, BECAUSE THESE OTHER PHENOMENA ARE FREQUENTLY IMPACTED BY MIXING WITH BIOMASS BURNING EMISSIONS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AP45G  
Sunday, October 1, 2017
$4,452.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
1203R6: USDA FOREST SERVICE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
CARHART CENTER NATIONAL WILDERNESS TACCOUNT # 900-13-0115 THIRD-PARTY BULK BILLED PHONE SERVICE FROM UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA TO CARHART CENTER.
D399: IT AND TELECOM- OTHER IT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS

  12034318P0002  
Thursday, September 21, 2017
$60,059.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
ARCTIC-BOREAL REGIONS (ABRS) OF NORTH AMERICA ARE WARMING AT A RATE ALMOST THREE TIMES HIGHER THAN THE GLOBAL AVERAGE, AND THE BIOPHYSICAL RESPONSES ARE ACUTE. MOST REGIONAL SCALE STUDIES TO DATE HAVE EXPLORED CONSEQUENCES ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING AND ENERGY BALANCE. FAR LESS ATTENTION HAS BEEN PAID TO THE VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE OF WILDLIFE THROUGHOUT THE ABR, DESPITE THE FACT THAT THE REGION HOSTS THE PLANET S MOST DIVERSE NEOTROPICAL MIGRANT SONGBIRD COMMUNITIES, CARIBOU WHICH ARE AMONG THE MOST ABUNDANT LONG RANGE MIGRATORY LARGE HERBIVORES IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE, AND INTACT YET THREATENED MAMMALIAN TROPHIC SYSTEMS. MANY ABR SPECIES PLAY UNIQUE ECOLOGICAL ROLES AND ARE OF CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE TO INDIGENOUS PEOPLE. MANY RECENT STUDIES SUGGEST THAT ANIMAL HABITAT THROUGHOUT THE ABR IS UNDERGOING RAPID AND PROFOUND CHANGE. FOR EXAMPLE, THE REGION IS UNDERGOING ALTERED VEGETATION PRODUCTIVITY, PHENOLOGY, COMPOSITION, AND BIO-PHYSICAL AND -CHEMICAL STRUCTURES; MORE EXTREME SWINGS IN SEASONALITY OF METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS; MORE FREQUENT DROUGHT CONDITIONS; CHANGES IN SNOW AND ICE COVER PROPERTIES, DYNAMICS AND DURATION; ENHANCEMENT OF DISTURBANCE REGIMES, AND; INCREASING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. EACH OF THESE CHANGES ALTERS WILDLIFE HABITAT IN UNIQUE WAYS - VERY OFTEN OVERLAPPING AND INTERACTING WITH ONE ANOTHER IN TIME AND SPACE. IN ADDITION, THERE IS HIGH SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY IN BOTH THE DIRECTION AND MAGNITUDE OF THESE CHANGES ACROSS THE ABR, YET LITTLE EFFORT HAS BEEN MADE TO UNDERSTAND THE ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES. HIGHLY MOBILE FAUNA OF THE ABR MUST NAVIGATE THROUGH AN INCREASINGLY COMPLEX AND DYNAMIC MOSAIC OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND LAND SURFACE CONDITIONS, BUT HOW VULNERABLE OR RESISTANT THEIR LONG-TERM PERSISTENCE IS TO THE INCREASING SPATIOTEMPORAL HETEROGENEITY IS UNKNOWN. ALTHOUGH THERE HAS BEEN SOME FOCUS ON HOW CHANGING CONDITIONS IN THE ABR AFFECT WILDLIFE HABITAT QUALITY AND SELECTION, THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF THESE STUDIES HAVE FOCUSED ON HOW HABITAT SELECTION BY ONE SPECIES (OR COMMUNITY OF SIMILAR SPECIES) RESPONDS TO A SINGLE EXTREME OR DISTURBANCE EVENT. RECENT AND EMERGING ADVANCES IN SPACE-BASED ANIMAL TRACKING TECHNOLOGY ALLOW DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF WILDLIFE MOVEMENTS ACROSS ANIMAL TAXA, OVER VAST AND REMOTE REGIONS, AND OVER MULTIPLE YEARS. IMPORTANTLY, THESE REGIONAL-SCALE AND NEAR-CONTINUOUS DESCRIPTIONS OF ANIMAL LOCATIONS CAN BE EXPLICITLY LINKED TO REMOTE SENSING OBSERVATIONS OF DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, WHICH ENABLES EXAMINATION OF ANIMAL RESPONSES TO A WIDE RANGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND EXTREME EVENTS THAT OCCUR - OFTEN UNPREDICTABLY - THROUGHOUT THEIR RANGES AND LIFE HISTORIES. OUR OVERARCHING SCIENCE GOAL IS TO UNDERSTAND HOW HIGHLY MOBILE TERRESTRIAL FAUNA NAVIGATE AND SELECT HABITAT IN THE RAPIDLY CHANGING ABOVE STUDY DOMAIN. FACILITATED BY MANY DATA-SHARING COLLABORATIONS WITH US AND CANADIAN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, WE WILL USE SPACE-BASED WILDLIFE TRACKING TECHNOLOGY TO BUILD AN INTEGRATED DATASET OF REGIONAL-SCALE AND NEAR-CONTINUOUS DESCRIPTIONS OF PASSERINE (AMERICAN ROBINS), RAPTOR (GOLDEN EAGLES), UNGULATE (CARIBOU, MOOSE), AND PREDATOR (WOLF AND BROWN BEAR) LOCATIONS WITH BOTH STATIC AND DYNAMIC REMOTE SENSING PRODUCTS AND OTHER REGIONAL-SCALE GEOSPATIAL DATASETS (OBJ.1). WE WILL USE THIS DATA TO BUILD EMPIRICALLY BASED STATISTICAL MOVEMENT AND HABITAT SELECTION MODELS FOR MULTIPLE GROUPS OF ANIMALS ACROSS THE ABOVE STUDY DOMAIN (OBJ.2). THE GEOSPATIAL TOOLS AND PRODUCTS WILL BE MADE ACCESSIBLE TO NATURAL RESOURCE AGENCIES, WILDLIFE MANAGERS, FIRST NATIONS, ALASKAN NATIVES, AND OTHER STAKEHOLDERS TO AID THEM IN MANAGEMENT AND ADAPTATION DECISIONS (OBJ.3). FURTHER, OUR NOVEL MODELS AND GEOSPATIAL TOOLS WILL BE AVAILABLE FOR PHASE 2 AND 3 ABOVE STUDIES IN WHICH FUTURE PROJECTIONS OF ANIMAL MOVEMENT AND HABITAT SELECTION WILL BE MADE, AND SUBSEQUENTLY USED TO DETERMINE SOCIETAL CONSEQUENCES AND DEVELOP DECISION SUPPORT PRODUCTS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AW71A  
Wednesday, September 13, 2017
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS INVESTIGATION FOCUSES ON TOPIC TWO OF THE SOLICITATION REGARDING OTHER HYDROLOGICAL SECTORS. WE WILL CLARIFY THE ROLE OF ROOT ZONE SOIL MOISTURE AND LANDSCAPE FREEZE-THAW STATUS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS TO TERRESTRIAL WATER MOBILITY AND SUPPLY OF PLANT-AVAILABLE MOISTURE UNDERPINNING VEGETATION ACTIVITY AND PRODUCTIVITY. VEGETATION GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION (GPP) IS THE PRINCIPAL MECHANISM FOR TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM UPTAKE AND STORAGE OF ATMOSPHERIC CO2, AND IS A MAJOR FACTOR DETERMINING BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE CARBON INTERACTIONS AND CLIMATE FEEDBACKS. HOWEVER, WHILE GPP IS A PRIMARY OUTPUT FROM GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMISTRY MODELS AND SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN MODEL LAND PRODUCTS, THERE IS CURRENTLY LARGE UNCERTAINTY AMONG MODEL BASED GPP PREDICTIONS. THIS AMBIGUITY IS A MAJOR ERROR SOURCE FOR HIGHER LEVEL PREDICTIONS OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON FLUXES AND PROPAGATES TO LARGE UNCERTAINTY IN GLOBAL MODEL PREDICTIONS REGARDING THE NATURE AND RELATIVE STABILITY OF THE TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINK, AND POTENTIAL BIOSPHERE RESPONSE AND ASSOCIATED CLIMATE FEEDBACKS TO GLOBAL WARMING. MUCH OF THIS UNCERTAINTY REFLECTS A LACK OF EXPLICIT REPRESENTATION OF MOISTURE CONSTRAINTS TO PRODUCTIVITY AND CANOPY GAS EXCHANGE. WE WILL REDUCE THIS UNCERTAINTY AND IMPROVE PROCESS LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF HYDROLOGY AND CARBON CYCLE LINKAGES BY FULFILLING THE FOLLOWING SCIENCE OBJECTIVES: 1) IMPROVE THE REPRESENTATION AND UNDERSTANDING OF PLANT AVAILABLE MOISTURE CONSTRAINTS TO VEGETATION ACTIVITY AND GPP USING A SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN MODEL SIMULATION FRAMEWORK; 2) APPLY THE ENHANCED MODEL FRAMEWORK TO QUANTIFY THE INTEGRATED EFFECTS OF EARLIER AND LONGER NON-FROZEN SEASONS AND ASSOCIATED CHANGES IN LAND SURFACE WATER MOBILITY AND ROOT ZONE SOIL MOISTURE ON GPP OVER NORTH AMERICA; 3) DOCUMENT THE REGIONAL PRODUCTIVITY RESPONSE AND RECOVERY TO INTENSIFYING DROUGHT DISTURBANCE. WE WILL APPLY AND REFINE A SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN LIGHT USE EFFICIENCY (LUE) MODEL SIMILAR TO THE LEVEL 4 CARBON (L4_C) MODEL FRAMEWORK BEING IMPLEMENTED UNDER THE NASA SMAP (SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE) MISSION TO CLARIFY THE ROLE OF ROOT ZONE SOIL MOISTURE AND LANDSCAPE FREEZE-THAW (FT) DYNAMICS IN REGULATING GPP. MODEL SIMULATIONS WILL BE CONDUCTED USING NEW NASA REMOTE SENSING DATA RECORDS FOR FT AND SOIL MOISTURE AS PRIMARY INPUTS AND CONSTRAINTS TO ESTIMATED GPP AND THE CONVERSION OF CANOPY ABSORBED PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE SOLAR RADIATION TO VEGETATION BIOMASS. THESE DATA WILL BE USED WITH OTHER ANCILLARY INPUTS WITHIN THE LUE MODEL TO CLARIFY REGIONAL PATTERNS AND VARIABILITY IN GPP AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS. THE LUE ALGORITHM WILL BE REFINED, CALIBRATED AND VALIDATED USING INDEPENDENT GPP OBSERVATIONS FROM REGIONAL TOWER (AMERIFLUX) EDDY COVARIANCE CO2 FLUX MEASUREMENT NETWORKS, AND VERIFIED AGAINST OTHER GPP PRODUCTS DEVELOPED UNDER NASA MODIS, AIRMOSS AND SMAP MISSIONS; MODEL PERFORMANCE AND GPP UNCERTAINTY WILL BE QUANTIFIED USING A FORWARD MODEL SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS, WHILE ACCOUNTING FOR POTENTIAL ERROR CONTRIBUTIONS FROM MODEL INPUTS, ALGORITHM ASSUMPTIONS AND LAND COVER HETEROGENEITY. THIS STUDY WILL CLARIFY LINKAGES BETWEEN TERRESTRIAL HYDROLOGY AND CARBON CYCLE PROCESSES. WE WILL IMPROVE PROCESS UNDERSTANDING AND QUANTIFICATION OF THE ROLES AND RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WATER SUPPLY AND FROZEN SEASON CONSTRAINTS ON VEGETATION GROWING SEASONS, AND THE NET EFFECT OF RECENT ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES TO GPP AND POTENTIAL CARBON SINK STRENGTH OVER NORTH AMERICA. WE WILL CONTRIBUTE TO MODEL SENSITIVITY AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS, AND VALIDATION ACTIVITIES THAT INFORM SCIENCE RESEARCH APPLICATIONS AND PRODUCT CALIBRATION, VALIDATION AND REFINEMENT FOR THE NASA SMAP MISSION. THIS STUDY WILL ALSO CONTRIBUTE TO THP OBJECTIVES TO IMPROVE PREDICTIVE UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLE OF WATER IN LAND-ATMOSPHERE INTERACTIONS, AND CLARIFY THE ROLE OF ROOT ZONE SOIL MOISTURE VARIABILITY AND FROZEN SEASON CONSTRAINTS ON PLANT-AVAILABLE WATER SUPPLY, VEGETATION ACTIVITY AND PRODUCTIVITY.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AB59G  
Friday, September 8, 2017
$0.00
7500: Department of Health and Human Services
75N930: NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NIAID

D: DEFINITIVE CONTRACT
INNATE IMMUNE RECEPTORS AND ADJUVANT DISCOVERY
AN11: R&D- MEDICAL: BIOMEDICAL (BASIC RESEARCH)

  HHSN272200900036C  
Wednesday, September 6, 2017
$0.00
7500: Department of Health and Human Services
75N930: NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NIAID

D: DEFINITIVE CONTRACT
IGF::OT::IGF ADJUVANT DISCOVERY PROGRAM
AN11: R&D- MEDICAL: BIOMEDICAL (BASIC RESEARCH)

  HHSN272201400050C  
Wednesday, September 6, 2017
$75,000.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS INVESTIGATION FOCUSES ON TOPIC TWO OF THE SOLICITATION REGARDING OTHER HYDROLOGICAL SECTORS. WE WILL CLARIFY THE ROLE OF ROOT ZONE SOIL MOISTURE AND LANDSCAPE FREEZE-THAW STATUS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS TO TERRESTRIAL WATER MOBILITY AND SUPPLY OF PLANT-AVAILABLE MOISTURE UNDERPINNING VEGETATION ACTIVITY AND PRODUCTIVITY. VEGETATION GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION (GPP) IS THE PRINCIPAL MECHANISM FOR TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM UPTAKE AND STORAGE OF ATMOSPHERIC CO2, AND IS A MAJOR FACTOR DETERMINING BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE CARBON INTERACTIONS AND CLIMATE FEEDBACKS. HOWEVER, WHILE GPP IS A PRIMARY OUTPUT FROM GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMISTRY MODELS AND SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN MODEL LAND PRODUCTS, THERE IS CURRENTLY LARGE UNCERTAINTY AMONG MODEL BASED GPP PREDICTIONS. THIS AMBIGUITY IS A MAJOR ERROR SOURCE FOR HIGHER LEVEL PREDICTIONS OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON FLUXES AND PROPAGATES TO LARGE UNCERTAINTY IN GLOBAL MODEL PREDICTIONS REGARDING THE NATURE AND RELATIVE STABILITY OF THE TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINK, AND POTENTIAL BIOSPHERE RESPONSE AND ASSOCIATED CLIMATE FEEDBACKS TO GLOBAL WARMING. MUCH OF THIS UNCERTAINTY REFLECTS A LACK OF EXPLICIT REPRESENTATION OF MOISTURE CONSTRAINTS TO PRODUCTIVITY AND CANOPY GAS EXCHANGE. WE WILL REDUCE THIS UNCERTAINTY AND IMPROVE PROCESS LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF HYDROLOGY AND CARBON CYCLE LINKAGES BY FULFILLING THE FOLLOWING SCIENCE OBJECTIVES: 1) IMPROVE THE REPRESENTATION AND UNDERSTANDING OF PLANT AVAILABLE MOISTURE CONSTRAINTS TO VEGETATION ACTIVITY AND GPP USING A SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN MODEL SIMULATION FRAMEWORK; 2) APPLY THE ENHANCED MODEL FRAMEWORK TO QUANTIFY THE INTEGRATED EFFECTS OF EARLIER AND LONGER NON-FROZEN SEASONS AND ASSOCIATED CHANGES IN LAND SURFACE WATER MOBILITY AND ROOT ZONE SOIL MOISTURE ON GPP OVER NORTH AMERICA; 3) DOCUMENT THE REGIONAL PRODUCTIVITY RESPONSE AND RECOVERY TO INTENSIFYING DROUGHT DISTURBANCE. WE WILL APPLY AND REFINE A SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN LIGHT USE EFFICIENCY (LUE) MODEL SIMILAR TO THE LEVEL 4 CARBON (L4_C) MODEL FRAMEWORK BEING IMPLEMENTED UNDER THE NASA SMAP (SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE) MISSION TO CLARIFY THE ROLE OF ROOT ZONE SOIL MOISTURE AND LANDSCAPE FREEZE-THAW (FT) DYNAMICS IN REGULATING GPP. MODEL SIMULATIONS WILL BE CONDUCTED USING NEW NASA REMOTE SENSING DATA RECORDS FOR FT AND SOIL MOISTURE AS PRIMARY INPUTS AND CONSTRAINTS TO ESTIMATED GPP AND THE CONVERSION OF CANOPY ABSORBED PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE SOLAR RADIATION TO VEGETATION BIOMASS. THESE DATA WILL BE USED WITH OTHER ANCILLARY INPUTS WITHIN THE LUE MODEL TO CLARIFY REGIONAL PATTERNS AND VARIABILITY IN GPP AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS. THE LUE ALGORITHM WILL BE REFINED, CALIBRATED AND VALIDATED USING INDEPENDENT GPP OBSERVATIONS FROM REGIONAL TOWER (AMERIFLUX) EDDY COVARIANCE CO2 FLUX MEASUREMENT NETWORKS, AND VERIFIED AGAINST OTHER GPP PRODUCTS DEVELOPED UNDER NASA MODIS, AIRMOSS AND SMAP MISSIONS; MODEL PERFORMANCE AND GPP UNCERTAINTY WILL BE QUANTIFIED USING A FORWARD MODEL SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS, WHILE ACCOUNTING FOR POTENTIAL ERROR CONTRIBUTIONS FROM MODEL INPUTS, ALGORITHM ASSUMPTIONS AND LAND COVER HETEROGENEITY. THIS STUDY WILL CLARIFY LINKAGES BETWEEN TERRESTRIAL HYDROLOGY AND CARBON CYCLE PROCESSES. WE WILL IMPROVE PROCESS UNDERSTANDING AND QUANTIFICATION OF THE ROLES AND RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WATER SUPPLY AND FROZEN SEASON CONSTRAINTS ON VEGETATION GROWING SEASONS, AND THE NET EFFECT OF RECENT ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES TO GPP AND POTENTIAL CARBON SINK STRENGTH OVER NORTH AMERICA. WE WILL CONTRIBUTE TO MODEL SENSITIVITY AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS, AND VALIDATION ACTIVITIES THAT INFORM SCIENCE RESEARCH APPLICATIONS AND PRODUCT CALIBRATION, VALIDATION AND REFINEMENT FOR THE NASA SMAP MISSION. THIS STUDY WILL ALSO CONTRIBUTE TO THP OBJECTIVES TO IMPROVE PREDICTIVE UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLE OF WATER IN LAND-ATMOSPHERE INTERACTIONS, AND CLARIFY THE ROLE OF ROOT ZONE SOIL MOISTURE VARIABILITY AND FROZEN SEASON CONSTRAINTS ON PLANT-AVAILABLE WATER SUPPLY, VEGETATION ACTIVITY AND PRODUCTIVITY.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AB59G  
Thursday, August 31, 2017
$25,000.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
124D90: USDA NRCS CONTRACTING SVS BRANCH

B: PURCHASE ORDER
IGF::OT::IGF
F999: OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES

  AG4D90P170299  
Tuesday, August 29, 2017
$16,169.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
UNDERSTANDING HOW SPECIES AND HABITATS ARE LIKELY TO RESPOND TO CLIMATE WARMING IS CRITICAL IN DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS. WE PROPOSE TO LINK HIGH-RESOLUTION SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING MAPPING OF FRESHWATER HABITATS WITH GENETIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND SPATIALLY EXPLICIT HYDROLOGICAL AND THERMAL MODEL OUTPUTS TO ASSESS THE VULNERABILITY OF SALMON POPULATIONS UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS AND FUTURE CLIMATE SCENARIOS. WE WILL ANSWER IMPORTANT CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT QUESTIONS REGARDING THE DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE, PHYSICAL COMPLEXITY, AND QUALITY OF FRESHWATER HABITATS AVAILABLE TO SALMON AND TROUT NOW AND UNDER PROJECTED CLIMATE CHANGE. WE WILL TRAIN ANGLERS (CROWDSOURCING) TO COLLECT IMAGES PAIRED WITH DNA SAMPLES FROM FISH TO ASSESS GENOMIC DIVERSITY AND CONNECTIVITY (GENE FLOW) AMONG MANY STREAMS AND SPECIES ACROSS THE PACIFIC RIM. THIS WORK WILL BUILD UPON AN EXISTING CONSERVATION DECISION SUPPORT WEB SYSTEM FOR WILD SALMON CONSERVATION (RAP: RIVERSCAPE ANALYSIS PROJECT; HTTP://RAP.NTSG.UMT.EDU), WHICH INCLUDES SPATIALLY EXPLICIT MAPPING OF SALMONID PHYSICAL FRESHWATER HABITATS AND PREDICTIONS OF POTENTIAL SALMON HABITATS, THEIR RELATIVE QUALITY, AND POTENTIAL VULNERABILITY. WE WILL ENHANCE THE RAP WEB SYSTEM BY IMPLEMENTING NEW SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING MEASURES OF RIPARIAN ZONE HABITAT QUALITY, AND GENETIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC INDICES OF SALMONID POPULATION VULNERABILITY DERIVED FROM LANDSCAPE GENETIC AND INDIVIDUAL-BASED SIMULATION MODELS OF POPULATION CONNECTIVITY AND ABUNDANCE. WE INITIALLY WILL FOCUS ON THE YUKON AND COLUMBIA RIVERS TO ASSESS NEW RAP METRICS ACROSS SPATIAL SCALES AND BECAUSE THE BEST AVAILABLE TIME-SERIES GENETIC AND ABUNDANCE EXIST FOR SALMONIDS IN THESE RIVERS (INCLUDING ENDANGERED CHINOOK SALMON, CHUM SALMON, AND THREATENED BULL TROUT). IN YEARS 2-4, WE WOULD ASSESS NEW RAP METRICS IN>1500 PACIFIC RIM RIVERS. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL BE USED WITH DECISION MAKERS TO IDENTIFY AND ASSESS VULNERABLE POPULATIONS, SPECIES AND ECOSYSTEMS, DESIGN LONG-TERM MONITORING PROGRAMS, INFORM FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS, AND DEVELOP CONSERVATION DELIVERY OPTIONS IN RESPONSE TO MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AB84G  
Monday, August 14, 2017
$45,000.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

T: TRAINING GRANT
MY OVERALL OBJECTIVE IS TO PREDICT THE PROBABILITY OF POPULATION PERSISTENCE UNDER A SUITE OF POTENTIAL MANAGEMENT SCENARIOS FOR 31 CARIBOU POPULATIONS THROUGHOUT ARCTIC-BOREAL NORTH AMERICA, AND TO USE THESE RESULTS TO INFORM HARVEST RATES AND CARIBOU MANAGEMENT IN THE FUTURE. TO ACCOMPLISH THIS OBJECTIVE, I WILL (1) OBTAIN CARIBOU DEMOGRAPHY DATA FROM 31 SEPARATE POPULATIONS OF CARIBOU THROUGHOUT THE ARCTIC-BOREAL REGION OF NORTH AMERICA, (2) INTEGRATE THESE DATA WITH NASA DERIVED DATA ON ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ACROSS THE SAME SPATIAL EXTENT TO MODEL CARIBOU SURVIVAL THROUGHOUT THE REGION, AND (3) INCORPORATE ALL OF THESE DATA INTO AN INTEGRATED POPULATION MODEL, WHICH WILL PROVIDE THE FRAMEWORK FOR THE POPULATION VIABILITY ANALYSIS. MY RESULTS WILL HELP DETERMINE THE BEST COMBINATION OF RECOVERY STRATEGIES, HABITAT, PREDATOR MANAGEMENT, AND HARVEST PRESCRIPTIONS TO ACHIEVE CARIBOU POPULATION VIABILITY FOR CARIBOU THROUGHOUT THE ARCTIC-BOREAL REGION. THIS RESEARCH WILL ALSO CONTRIBUTE TO ADVANCING KNOWLEDGE ON HUMAN INTERACTION WITH ECOSYSTEM CHANGE THROUGH HARVEST. MY PROPOSAL TO LINK LARGE SCALE NASA ENVIRONMENTAL DATA WITH CARIBOU DEMOGRAPHY DATA TO ASSESS THE CARIBOU POPULATION VIABILITY REPRESENTS AN INTEGRATIVE, NOVEL APPROACH TO UNDERSTANDING A RAPIDLY CHANGING ECOSYSTEM.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  80NSSC17K0397  
Monday, July 31, 2017
$2,796,602.00
7500: Department of Health and Human Services
75N930: NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NIAID

D: DEFINITIVE CONTRACT
IGF::OT::IGF ADJUVANT DISCOVERY PROGRAM
AN11: R&D- MEDICAL: BIOMEDICAL (BASIC RESEARCH)

  HHSN272201400050C  
Friday, July 21, 2017
$0.00
7500: Department of Health and Human Services
75N930: NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NIAID

D: DEFINITIVE CONTRACT
INNATE IMMUNE RECEPTORS AND ADJUVANT DISCOVERY
AN11: R&D- MEDICAL: BIOMEDICAL (BASIC RESEARCH)

  HHSN272200900036C  
Thursday, July 20, 2017
$243,748.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN MODEL ASSESSMENT OF LANDSCAPE VARIABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS ON THE ARCTIC-BOREAL CARBON BUDGET WE WILL APPLY A SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN CARBON MODEL FRAMEWORK TO IMPROVE UNDERSTANDING AND QUANTIFICATION OF CARBON (CO2 AND CH4) FLUXES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS ON THE NET ECOSYSTEM CARBON BUDGET (NECB) OVER THE ABOVE DOMAIN. WE WILL DEVELOP A FOUNDATIONAL DATABASE TO EXPLORE AND QUANTIFY LINKS BETWEEN CHANGING SURFACE CONDITIONS, INCLUDING FREEZE-THAW (FT) REGIMES, SOIL MOISTURE AND OPEN WATER INUNDATION, AND ARCTIC-BOREAL CARBON FLUXES. THESE DATA WILL LINK LOCAL TOWER SITE OBSERVATIONS WITH CARVE AIRBORNE ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND CH4 MEASUREMENTS AND OTHER LAND PARAMETERS DERIVED FROM SATELLITE OPTICAL AND MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING TO CLARIFY SURFACE MOISTURE AND THERMAL CONSTRAINTS TO VEGETATION GROWTH AND SOIL CARBON CYCLING. WE WILL APPLY THESE DATA WITHIN A TERRESTRIAL CARBON FLUX (TCF) MODEL TO QUANTIFY THE NECB, COMPONENT CARBON FLUXES AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS. MODEL SENSITIVITY STUDIES WILL BE CONDUCTED AT SITE, LOCAL AND REGIONAL SCALES IN CONTEXT WITH REMOTE SENSING OBSERVATIONS TO DOCUMENT MODEL UNCERTAINTIES AND SCALING PROPERTIES OF CRITICAL DRIVERS. THESE RESULTS WILL BE USED TO IMPROVE MODEL REPRESENTATIONS OF SUB-GRID SCALE PROCESSES AFFECTING CARBON FLUX ESTIMATES, WHILE INCORPORATING REGIONAL MODEL ENHANCEMENTS REPRESENTING WILDFIRE DISTURBANCE RECOVERY AND WETLAND CH4 EMISSIONS. RESULTS WILL INCLUDE VERIFIED NECB MAPS, COMPONENT CARBON FLUXES AND ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS WITH DAILY TEMPORAL FIDELITY, 1-KM SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND 14+ YEAR (2003-2016) DATA RECORDS. THIS STUDY ADDRESSES SEVERAL ABOVE SCIENCE QUESTIONS, INCLUDING: "HOW ARE THE MAGNITUDES, FATES, AND LAND-ATMOSPHERE EXCHANGES OF CARBON POOLS RESPONDING TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, AND WHAT ARE THE BIOGEOCHEMICAL MECHANISMS DRIVING THESE CHANGES?" WE ALSO ADDRESS ABOVE OBJECTIVES FOR "ELUCIDATING HOW CLIMATE CHANGE AND DISTURBANCES INTERACT AND ALTER LAND-ATMOSPHERE CARBON EXCHANGE." THIS STUDY MEETS PHASE I PRIORITIES FOR DEVELOPING "A SET OF READILY ACCESSIBLE, VALIDATED DATA PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM MULTIPLE SENSORS THAT CAN BE INTEGRATED TO FORM THE BASIS FOR INVESTIGATIONS OF ECOSYSTEM AND SOCIETAL RESPONSE OVER THE ENTIRE STUDY DOMAIN." WE WILL ALSO CONTRIBUTE MODEL SENSITIVITY AND VALIDATION ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING ABOVE PHASE II AND III ACTIVITIES, WITH DIRECT APPLICATIONS TO NASA SMAP AND CARVE MISSIONS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AT74A  
Wednesday, July 19, 2017
$5,129.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
WARMER SPRINGS AND DRIER SUMMERS ARE EXPECTED TO INCREASE THE CO2 UPTAKE OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS BY LENGTHENING THE GROWING SEASON, BUT REDUCE SUMMER UPTAKE THROUGH WATER STRESS. ONE OF THE KEY CHALLENGES IN CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE IS DETERMINING THE BALANCE OF THESE PROCESSES, HOW THEY ARE COUPLED THROUGH CARBON-WATER CYCLE INTERACTIONS, AND THE IMPACT ON ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONCENTRATIONS. THE CARBON UPTAKE RESPONSE TO SEASONAL WARMING AND DRYING IS UNCERTAIN, BUT APPEARS TO BE INCREASINGLY DEPENDENT ON AVAILABILITY OF LIQUID WATER IN SOILS, WHICH IS LIMITED PRIMARILY BY WATER SCARCITY IN WARM TEMPERATE CLIMATES AND FREEZING TEMPERATURES IN COLD NORTHERN CLIMATES, AND MODULATED BY DROUGHT AND THAWING/FREEZING PROCESSES, RESPECTIVELY. THEIR INTERACTIVE EFFECTS WITH CO2 PHOTOSYNTHETIC GAIN (GPP) AND RESPIRATION LOSS (ER) SHOWS HIGH SEASONAL, SPATIAL, AND BIOME DEPENDENCE. HERE, WE PROPOSE TO EXPLOIT AN EXPANDING SET OF MULTI-SCALE CARBON AND WATER CYCLE OBSERVATIONS WITH STATE-OF-THE-ART LAND AND ATMOSPHERE MODELS TO INVESTIGATE THE RESPONSE OF SEASONAL PHENOLOGY, CO2 EXCHANGE, AND ATMOSPHERIC CO2 TO SPRING WARMING, SOIL THAW, AND LIQUID WATER AVAILABILITY SINCE 2002. WE WILL USE A COUPLED HYDROSPHERE-BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK, FOCUSING BROADLY ON NORTH AMERICA (NA) AND SPECIFICALLY ON CLIMATE SENSITIVE SEMI-ARID AND ARCTIC-BOREAL ECOSYSTEMS. WE SEEK TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING CRITICAL SCIENCE QUESTION: HOW HAS TERRESTRIAL CARBON UPTAKE, IN PARTICULAR GPP AND ER, EVOLVED IN THE PAST DECADE, AND WHAT HAS BEEN THE IMPACT ON ATMOSPHERIC CO2 CONCENTRATIONS?" OUR WORK LEVERAGES NEW AND EXISTING TOWER MEASUREMENTS OF SOLAR INDUCED CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE (SIF) IN NA TO EXPLOIT NASA S UNIQUE ARRAY OF SATELLITE VEGETATION REMOTE SENSING DATA TO (1) ESTABLISH THE MECHANISTIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SIF AND GPP ACROSS DIVERSE BIOMES AS A FUNCTION OF OPTIMIZED LIGHT USE EFFICIENCY (LUE) AND SIFYIELD PARAMETERS, AND (2) REFINE AND CALIBRATE EXISTING (SCIAMACHY, GOSAT, GOME-2, OCO-2) AND PLANNED (TROPOMI) SATELLITE SIF OBSERVATIONS FOR BROADER INTEGRATED ANALYSIS OF LONG TERM VARIABILITY. WE WILL INCORPORATE SIF OPTIMIZED LUE WITH OBSERVED ENVIRONMENTAL THRESHOLDS (SMAP, AMSR) AND VEGETATION CONSTRAINTS (MODIS) INTO THE SMAP CARBON MODEL (L4C) TO ELUCIDATE STRUCTURAL (EVI), FUNCTIONAL (SIF), AND ENVIRONMENTAL (SOIL MOISTURE, FREEZE/THAW, VAPOR PRESSURE DEFICIT, TEMPERATURE) CONTROLS ON SEASONAL COMPONENT CO2 FLUXES (GPP, ER) AND ANNUAL CO2 BALANCE (NEE) IN NA. WE WILL EVALUATE SMAP CO2 FLUXES AGAINST INDEPENDENT CONSTRAINTS FROM UPSCALED FLUX TOWER DATA (FLUXCOM), AND PROPAGATE TO ATMOSPHERIC CO2 FOR VALIDATION (GOSAT, OCO-2, NOAA) AND ANALYSIS OF LONG TERM (2002-2018) IAV OF CO2 ANNUAL GROWTH AND SEASONAL CYCLE AMPLITUDE. WE WILL ALSO INCORPORATE OUR FINDINGS INTO THE PROGNOSTIC COMMUNITY LAND MODEL (CLM) BY PARAMETERIZING PHENOLOGICAL PROCESSES (TIME LAG BETWEEN LEAF OUT AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC ONSET) AND TESTING THE IMPACT ON SEASONAL CO2 FLUX AND SUMMER WATER AVAILABILITY. THIS INVESTIGATION IS CAPTURED IN THREE OBJECTIVES: (1) QUANTIFY 2002-2018 INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY IN SPRING AND FALL PHENOLOGY, CO2 FLUXES, AND ATMOSPHERIC CO2 IN NORTH AMERICA ASSOCIATED WITH SPRING WARMING AND SUMMER DRYING; (2) IDENTIFY THE CRITICAL WATER AVAILABILITY THRESHOLDS THAT SHIFT THE BALANCE OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC AND RESPIRATION CO2 FLUXES IN VULNERABLE, CLIMATE SENSITIVE BIOMES; AND (3) DEMONSTRATE THE POWER OF COMBINING STRATEGICALLY COORDINATED TOWER SIF MEASUREMENTS WITH NASA SATELLITE SIF AND CO2 PRODUCTS TO MONITOR SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL GPP VARIATIONS. THE PROPOSED INVESTIGATION DEPENDS STRONGLY ON REMOTE SENSING DATA AND ANALYSIS OF LONG TERM VARIABILITY, INVOLVES MULTIPLE DISPARATE DISCIPLINES OF THE EARTH SCIENCES, AND ADDRESSES A KEY IDS THEME: PARTITIONING OF CARBON BETWEEN THE ATMOSHPERE AND BIOSPHERE
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  80NSSC17K0115  
Wednesday, July 12, 2017
$0.00
7500: Department of Health and Human Services
75N930: NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NIAID

D: DEFINITIVE CONTRACT
IGF::OT::IGF ADJUVANT DISCOVERY PROGRAM
AN11: R&D- MEDICAL: BIOMEDICAL (BASIC RESEARCH)

  HHSN272201400050C  
Thursday, June 29, 2017
$374,052.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
WE PROPOSE TO EXTEND AND ENHANCE THE EARTH SYSTEM DATA RECORD (ESDR) QUANTIFYING DAILY LANDSCAPE FREEZE/THAW (FT) STATE DYNAMICS OVER ALL GLOBAL VEGETATED LAND AREAS WHERE SEASONAL FROZEN TEMPERATURES ARE A SIGNIFICANT CONSTRAINT TO ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES, INCLUDING LAND-ATMOSPHERE CARBON, WATER, AND ENERGY FLUXES. THE FREEZE/THAW ESDR (FT-ESDR) CAPTURES DYNAMIC SEASONAL TO ANNUAL VARIABILITY, AND LARGE REGIONAL AND GLOBAL TRENDS IN FROZEN TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS TO LANDSCAPE WATER MOBILITY AND ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES IN RESPONSE TO RECENT CLIMATE CHANGE. THE PROPOSED FT-ESDR CONTINUITY AND ENHANCEMENTS WILL PROVIDE A CONTINUOUS GLOBAL DATA RECORD ENCOMPASSING ALMOST FOUR DECADES AND REPRESENTING ONE OF THE LONGEST SATELLITE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA RECORDS IN EXISTENCE, WHILE PROVIDING AN EXTENDED DOMAIN, FINER SPATIAL RESOLUTION FT RETRIEVALS FOR THE NORTHERN LATITUDES AND INCREASED PRODUCT SCIENCE UTILITY OVER THE EXISTING GLOBAL BASELINE. THE PROPOSED ACTIVITIES ARE THE LOGICAL EXTENSION OF AN EXPIRING MEASURES ACTIVITY AND BUILD ON A SUCCESSFUL FT-ESDR DEVELOPED BY MERGING OVERLAPPING SATELLITE PASSIVE MICROWAVE DAILY BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE (TB) RECORDS FROM THE SCANNING MULTICHANNEL MICROWAVE RADIOMETER (SMMR) AND SPECIAL SENSOR MICROWAVE IMAGER (SSM/I). THE FT-ESDR INCLUDES A CONSISTENT AND RELATIVELY PRECISE (>80% MEAN SPATIAL CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY) DAILY (AM AND PM) CLASSIFICATION OF THE PREDOMINANT FROZEN AND NON-FROZEN STATUS OF THE LANDSCAPE AT MODERATE (25-KM) RESOLUTION, WITH DETAILED METADATA. WE PROPOSE TO CONTINUE THE GLOBAL FT-ESDR BASELINE BY INCORPORATING ADDITIONAL CALIBRATED TB RECORDS FROM THE CONTINUING SSM/I SERIES, WHILE DOCUMENTING PRODUCT ACCURACY IN RELATION TO GLOBAL WMO STATION OBSERVATIONS AND SIMILAR FT RETRIEVALS FROM OTHER SATELLITE MICROWAVE RECORDS. THE PROPOSED ACTIVITIES WILL UTILIZE LESSONS LEARNED FROM OUR INITIAL FT-ESDR DEVELOPMENT AND ONGOING VALIDATION AND PRODUCT QUALITY ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES. WE WILL ALSO EVALUATE POTENTIAL ENHANCEMENTS TO THE FT-ESDR BASELINE, INCLUDING AN EXPANDED PRODUCT DOMAIN ENCOMPASSING THE LARGER CRYOSPHERE, PRODUCTION OF REGIONALLY ENHANCED FT RECORDS FOR NORTHERN (>/=45N) LAND AREAS USING SIMILAR OVERLAPPING TB RECORDS FROM THE ADVANCED MICROWAVE SCANNING RADIOMETER FOR EOS (AMSR-E) AND WINDSAT, WITH POTENTIAL TWO- TO FOUR-FOLD SPATIAL RESOLUTION ENHANCEMENT OVER THE EXISTING FT-ESDR BASELINE. THE PROPOSED FTESDR SERVES SEVERAL EARTH SCIENCE FOCUS AREAS AND ASSOCIATED USER COMMUNITIES, INCLUDING WATER&ENERGY CYCLE, CARBON CYCLE&ECOSYSTEMS, AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY&CHANGE. THE INITIAL FT-ESDR (VERSION 01) IS PUBLICLY AVAILABLE THROUGH THE NSIDC DAAC; CURRENT (FEB-012) USER METRICS FOR THESE DATA INDICATE MORE THAN 2083 HITS AND 138 GB OF DATA DOWNLOADED TO THE COMMUNITY, WITH MORE THAN 20 KNOWN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS INVOLVING THESE DATA, WHILE THE NUMBER OF USERS, SCIENCE APPLICATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS FROM THESE DATA CONTINUE TO GROW. THE PROPOSED FT-ESDR CONTINUITY AND ENHANCEMENTS WILL ENABLE PRECISE DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF BOTH CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND LONG-TERM TRENDS EXTENDING OVER ALMOST 40 YEARS. THE PROPOSED ACTIVITIES WILL DIRECTLY BENEFIT THE NASA SMAP MISSION, WHICH HAS A PLANNED MID-2014 LAUNCH AND WILL PROVIDE AN OPERATIONAL FT PRODUCT SIMILAR TO THE FT-ESDR; THE PROPOSED DATA RECORDS WILL INFORM MISSION SCIENCE AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION, AND PROVIDE BASELINE INFORMATION FOR ASSESSING THE GLOBAL CHANGE SIGNIFICANCE OF FUTURE FT MEASUREMENTS FROM SMAP AND ASSOCIATED ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS, VALIDATION AND UNCERTAINTY MEASUREMENTS FOR MEETING MISSION OBJECTIVES.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AB20A  
Monday, June 19, 2017
($5,398.42)
1200: Department of Agriculture
12024B: USDA FOREST SERVICE

A: BPA CALL
DEOBLIGATE REMAINING FUNDS. IGF::CT::IGF
U008: EDUCATION/TRAINING- TRAINING/CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

  AG024BK150011     AG024BB150002  
Tuesday, June 13, 2017
($20.30)
1400: Department of the Interior
140F06: US FISH AND WILDLIFE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
"IGF::OT::IGF" WATER HOWELLIA DISTURBANCES ANALYSIS
R405: SUPPORT- PROFESSIONAL: OPERATIONS RESEARCH/QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

  INF17PX00453  
Thursday, June 8, 2017
$14,475.68
1100: Executive Office of the President
1145PC: PEACE CORPS OACM

B: PURCHASE ORDER
MONTANA RECRUITER CONTRACT IGF::OT::IGF
U009: EDUCATION/TRAINING- GENERAL

  PC158034     PC15Q019  
Tuesday, June 6, 2017
$43,324.40
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

T: TRAINING GRANT
FORESTS COVER APPROXIMATELY 30% OF THE EARTH'S LAND SURFACE AND ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ABOUT 45% OF GLOBAL TERRESTRIAL CARBON (C) STORAGE. THE SEVERITY AND FREQUENCY OF ECOSYSTEM DISTURBANCE IS INCREASING GLOBALLY DUE TO WARMING TEMPERATURES AND SHIFTS IN PRECIPITATION PATTERNS. INCREASING FOREST DISTURBANCE- RELATED MORTALITY MAY BE DUE TO INCREASES IN WATER STRESS, WHICH MAY REDUCE THE RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS. RESISTANCE IS THE CAPACITY OF AN ECOSYSTEM TO REMAIN UNCHANGED IN RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE, WHEREAS RESILIENCE IS THE ABILITY OF AN ECOSYSTEM TO RECOVER. THE OBSERVED CHANGES IN DISTURBANCE REGIMES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO GREATLY ALTER THE C UPTAKE POTENTIAL OF FORESTS. HOWEVER, WHILE INCREASES IN DISTURBANCE-RELATED MORTALITY SUGGEST THAT TERRESTRIAL C UPTAKE SHOULD BE DECREASING, GLOBAL C BALANCE STUDIES FIND TERRESTRIAL C UPTAKE TO BE STABLE OR EVEN INCREASING, POTENTIALLY DUE TO THE INFLUENCE OF CO2 FERTILIZATION ON FOREST RESILIENCE. RECONCILING THE RESULTS OF DISTURBANCE-RELATED MORTALITY STUDIES WITH RESULTS FROM FOREST C BALANCE STUDIES REMAINS A CHALLENGE FOR EARTH SYSTEM SCIENTISTS. I PROPOSE TO INVESTIGATE THE RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE OF FORESTS TO CHANGES IN DISTURBANCE REGIMES AND ULTIMATELY HOW THESE CHANGES HAVE AFFECTED FOREST NET C BALANCE. WHILE DISTURBANCE MAY BE INCREASING GLOBALLY, DISTURBANCE IMPACTS ON FOREST C UPTAKE MIGHT NOT BE CHANGING SIGNIFICANTLY. ADDITIONALLY, NOT ALL DISTURBANCE AGENTS (E.G. FIRE, DROUGHT, AND INSECTS) WILL INCREASE IN FREQUENCY AND/OR SEVERITY, NOR WILL THEY ALL HAVE THE SAME IMPACTS ON FOREST C CARBON BALANCE. EACH DISTURBANCE AGENT SHOULD BE EXAMINED INDIVIDUALLY TO BEST UNDERSTAND FUTURE FOREST SCENARIOS. I PROPOSE TO USE 30 METER LANDSAT REFLECTANCE DATA AND THE COMMUNITY LAND MODEL (CLM) TO DETERMINE THE C IMPACTS OF DISTURBANCES IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES FROM 1984 2100. DISTURBANCE-RELATED BIOMASS MORTALITY FROM 1984,2010 WILL BE DETECTED AND QUANTIFIED BY APPLYING A FOREST DISTURBANCE ALGORITHM THAT I HAVE DEVELOPED TO LANDSAT DATA. DETECTED BIOMASS MORTALITY WILL THEN BE ASSIGNED TO PARTICULAR DISTURBANCE AGENTS USING BAYESIAN CLASSIFICATION, AND FINALLY, AREAS WILL BE EVALUATED FOR POTENTIAL C RELEASE USING CLM. DISTURBANCE IMPACTS ON FOREST C UPTAKE CAPACITY FROM 2010 2100 WILL BE SIMULATED USING THE PAST DISTURBANCE LANDSCAPE MOSAIC AS BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR CLM SIMULATIONS. THE PROPOSED RESEARCH APPLIES DIRECTLY TO THE NASA 2014 STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2.2, TO ADVANCE KNOWLEDGE OF THE EARTH AS A SYSTEM TO MEET THE CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, AND TO IMPROVE LIFE ON OUR PLANET, AND WILL ALSO HELP TO INFORM OTHER CURRENT NASA MISSIONS SUCH AS THE GLOBAL C MONITORING SYSTEM (CMS) AS WELL AS THE ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY (OCO-2). THIS RESEARCH WILL INVESTIGATE THE RESILIENCE OF FORESTS IN ORDER TO ENSURE THAT FORESTS CONTINUE TO PROVIDE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES THAT ARE VITAL TO SOCIETY.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AN16H  
Monday, June 5, 2017
($180.00)
1200: Department of Agriculture
1203R6: USDA FOREST SERVICE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
IGF::OT::IGF - PHONE SERVICE FROM UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA TO CARHART CTR IGF::CL,CT::IGF
D304: IT AND TELECOM- TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSMISSION

  AG03R6P140015  
Wednesday, May 3, 2017
$166,021.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
PROVIDING CONTINUITY FOR THE MODIS LAND GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION, NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION DATASETS MY TEAM HAS NOW PRODUCED THE ALGORITHMS FOR A 13 YEAR RECORD OF GLOBAL 8-DAY GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION, ANNUAL NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND 8-DAY EVAPOTRANSPIRATION FROM TERRA MODIS AND AQUA MODIS. THESE GLOBAL DATASETS ARE UNIQUE, CURRENTLY NO ONE ELSE IS REGULARLY PRODUCING THESE DATA FROM ANY SENSOR. USES OF THESE DATA EXTEND FROM CARBON CYCLE SOURCE/SINK ANALYSIS, CARBON CREDIT CALCULATIONS, AGRICULTURAL GROWTH AND YIELD, DROUGHT MONITORING, WATER MANAGEMENT, GCM PARAMETERIZATION AND TESTING, BIOENERGY CAPACITIES, AND EVEN PLANETARY BOUNDARY THEORY. BECAUSE OF THIS HERITAGE AND WIDE USE, A FIRST PRIORITY MUST BE CONTINUITY OF THESE DATASETS AT THE HIGHEST PRECISION POSSIBLE. THIS INCLUDES ADJUSTING THESE ALGORITHMS TO CHANGES IN THE INPUT DATASTREAMS, SUCH AS LANDCOVER AND LEAF AREA INDEX, AND SENSOR DEGRADATION CORRECTIONS. IT ALSO INCLUDES RECOMPUTES WHEN NEW VERSIONS OF THE GLOBAL DAILY SURFACE METEOROLOGY FROM GEOS-5 ARE INTRODUCED. THE SECOND PRIORITY IS TO EXPLORE IMPROVEMENTS TO THE GPP AND NPP ALGORITHMS. THE GREATEST POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVEMENT WILL BE DEFINING MORE BIOME TYPES AND ALLOWING A MORE SOPHISTICATED CALCULATION OF THE CONVERSION EFFICIENCY FROM RADIANT ENERGY TO BIOMASS. NEW DATA FROM GLOBAL FLUXNET STATIONS AND OTHER SOURCES NOW ALLOWS A MUCH MORE BIOME SPECIFIC, REGIONALLY CALIBRATED AND EVEN SEASONALLY ADJUSTED .
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AI69G  
Monday, May 1, 2017
$6,177.01
1200: Department of Agriculture
1243ZP: USDA FOREST SERVICE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
IGF::CL::IGF LOGISTICAL SUPPORT OF 2017 SALE AREA LAYOUT AND HARVESTING INSTITUTE (SALHI) SESSION II.
U099: EDUCATION/TRAINING- OTHER

  AG43ZPP170008  
Monday, April 24, 2017
($33.33)
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
THE FREEZE-THAW (FT) STATE PARAMETER DERIVED FROM SATELLITE MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING QUANTIFIES THE PREDOMINANT FROZEN OR NON-FROZEN STATE OF THE LANDSCAPE AND IS CLOSELY LINKED TO SURFACE ENERGY BUDGET AND HYDROLOGICAL ACTIVITY, SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF VEGETATION GROWTH, TERRESTRIAL CARBON BUDGETS AND LAND-ATMOSPHERE TRACE GAS EXCHANGE. WE ARE DEVELOPING A GLOBAL EARTH SYSTEM DATA RECORD OF DAILY LANDSCAPE FREEZE-THAW STATE DYNAMICS (FT-ESDR) THROUGH AN EXISTING NASA MEASURES FUNDED ACTIVITY. APPROXIMATELY THREE REPROCESSING AND FT-ESDR RELEASES ARE PLANNED UNDER THIS EFFORT, INVOLVING VARIABLE DURATION SATELLITE RECORDS AND MULTIPLE, OVERLAPPING SENSORS AND DATA SERIES. AN INITIAL FT-ESDR RELEASE IS AVAILABLE ONLINE THROUGH THE NASA NSIDC DAAC. THE INITIAL FT-ESDR HAS BEEN VERIFIED USING IN SITU TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS FROM GLOBAL WEATHER STATIONS. OTHER DATA QUALITY (QC) METRICS PROVIDE SPATIALLY CONTIGUOUS INFORMATION ON FT-ESDR ACCURACY. THE QC DATA INCLUDE POTENTIAL NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TEMPORAL GAPS IN SENSOR DATA TIME SERIES, OPEN WATER, TERRAIN AND LAND COVER HETEROGENEITY. THE CURRENT QC METHODS ACCOUNT FOR LESS THAN 25% OF THE VARIANCE IN CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY. WITH THE REMAINING ACCURACY VARIANCE BEING UNEXPLAINED, THERE IS NOTEABLE UNCERTAINTY IN THE FT-ESDR. AVAILABLE WEATHER STATION NETWORKS ARE RELATIVELY SPARSE FOR MANY AREAS AND MAY NOT ADEQUATELY REPRESENT THE GLOBAL RANGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND FT VARIABILITY. POTENTIAL UTILITY OF OVERLAPPING, MULTI-FREQUENCY ACTIVE/PASSIVE MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING DATA ARE ALSO LARGELY UNDEFINED DUE TO LACK OF INFORMATION REGARDING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE VARIOUS SENSOR RETRIEVALS AND ASSOCIATED ERROR SOURCES. THESE METHODS ALSO DON##T REPRESENT EXPLICIT SYSTEMATIC AND RANDOM ERROR COMPONENTS OF THE FT RETRIEVAL, INCLUDING SENSOR FOOTPRINT, FREQUENCY AND FT SENSITIVITY, TEMPORAL FIDELITY OF THE RETRIEVALS, SIGNAL DEGRADATION FROM ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS, IN SITU MEASUREMENT ERROR AND SATELLITE OVERPASS TIMING. WE PROPOSE TO CONDUCT DETAILED SENSITIVITY AND ERROR ANALYSES OF THE FT-ESDR FOR IMPROVED QUANTIFICATION AND ATTRIBUTION OF FT RETRIEVAL UNCERTAINTIES, INVOLVING MULTIPLE SENSOR DATA RECORDS, WITH VARIABLE FREQUENCIES, POLARIZATIONS, OVERPASSES, SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND TEMPORAL SAMPLING. THE SATELLITE ACTIVE/PASSIVE DATA RECORDS TO BE INVESTIGATED INCLUDE THE SCANNING MULTI-CHANNEL MICROWAVE RADIOMETER (SMMR), SPECIAL SENSOR MICROWAVE IMAGER (SSM/I), ADVANCED MICROWAVE SCANNING RADIOMETER ON EOS (AMSR-E), SEAWINDS-ON-QUIKSCAT, ERS-1/2 SCATTEROMETERS, THE ADVANCED SCATTEROMETER (ASCAT), AND THE SOIL MOISTURE AND OCEAN SALINITY (SMOS) MISSION. COLLECTIVELY THESE DATA ENABLE A POTENTIAL FT-ESDR RECORD SPANNING MORE THAN 30-YEARS. WE WILL APPLY A SUITE OF FORWARD RADAR BACKSCATTER AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS MODELS TO DETERMINE MICROWAVE SENSITIVITY TO INDIVIDUAL AND CUMULATIVE ERROR SOURCES, AND TRACK RESULTING ERROR PROPAGATION THROUGH THE FT RETRIEVAL ALGORITHMS AND RESULTING CLASSIFICATION RESULTS. WE WILL CONDUCT SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALE DEGRADATION EXERCISES USING EXISTING MULTI-SCALE SATELLITE MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING RECORDS TO QUANTIFY SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND TEMPORAL FIDELITY COMPONENTS OF FT CLASSIFICATION UNCERTAINTY. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL ENABLE NEW FT ALGORITHMS AND CLASSIFICATIONS USING ENSEMBLE MEASUREMENTS FROM MULTIPLE ACTIVE/PASSIVE MICROWAVE SENSORS, FREQUENCIES AND POLARIZATIONS. WE WILL ALSO EXPLOIT NEW DATA SOURCES FROM UPCOMING FT FIELD CAMPAIGNS UNDER THE SMOS AND NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) DECADAL SURVEY MISSIONS; THESE DATA WILL BE APPLIED WITH EXISTING MEASUREMENT NETWORKS FOR FORWARD MODEL CALIBRATION AND FT VALIDATION. SENSITIVITY STUDIES WILL BE CONDUCTED USING BOTH MODEL SIMULATIONS AND SATELLITE AND IN SITU NETWORK MEASUREMENTS. THE RESULTS OF THIS WORK WILL INCLUDE AN IMPROVED GLOBAL FT-ESDR WITH WELL QUANTIFIED ACCURACY, INCLUDING A DETAILED ERROR BUDGET FOR THE FT MEASUREMENT.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX11AP68A  
Wednesday, April 19, 2017
$54,787.75
1200: Department of Agriculture
1243ZP: USDA FOREST SERVICE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
IGF::CL::IGF LOGISTICAL SUPPORT OF SALE AREA AND LAYOUT HARVESTING INSTITUTE (SALHI) SESSION II, 05/05-19/2017, TO INCLUDE MEALS, LODGING AND USE OF LUBRECHT EXPERIMENTAL FOREST.
U099: EDUCATION/TRAINING- OTHER

  AG43ZPP176032  
Monday, March 27, 2017
$138,479.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SMAP SCIENCE TEAM. I PROPOSE TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE SMAP SCIENCE TEAM (ST) IN SUPPORTING CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE AND RELATED APPLICATIONS ENABLED BY NEW SMAP FREEZE/THAW (FT) AND SOIL MOISTURE OBSERVATIONS. PROPOSED UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA (UMT) CONTRIBUTIONS TO PRE- AND POST-LAUNCH ST ACTIVITIES INCLUDE CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION (CAL/VAL) SUPPORT FOR THE SMAP LEVEL 4 CARBON (L4_C) PRODUCT AS DOCUMENTED IN THE SMAP CAL/VAL PLAN AND L4_C ALGORITHM THEORETICAL BASIS DOCUMENT (ATBD); THESE ACTIVITIES WILL AUGMENT UMT PRODUCT MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES ALREADY SUPPORTED BY THE MISSION. UMT ST CONTRIBUTIONS AND DELIVERABLES WILL INCLUDE L4_C PRODUCT ASSESSMENTS AT CORE AND SECONDARY TOWER VALIDATION SITES TO QUANTIFY PRODUCT ACCURACY AGAINST INDEPENDENT TOWER EDDY COVARIANCE MEASUREMENT BASED ESTIMATES OF NET ECOSYSTEM CO2 EXCHANGE (NEE), COMPONENT CARBON FLUXES (GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND ECOSYSTEM RESPIRATION) AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS, INCLUDING FT AND SOIL MOISTURE VARIABILITY. WE WILL ENHANCE THE L4_C CAL/VAL ACTIVITIES TO INCLUDE ADDITIONAL ALGORITHM AND PRODUCT COMPARISONS AGAINST SYNERGISTIC TOWER OBSERVATIONS AND STAND TO REGIONAL SCALE CARBON PRODUCTS PRODUCED UNDER THE NASA AIRMOSS MISSION. WE WILL ALSO CONDUCT OFFLINE FORWARD MODEL SIMULATIONS AND SENSITIVITY STUDIES USING THE UMT L4_C ALGORITHM SIMULATOR TO EVALUATE ALGORITHM OPTIONS AND DERIVE DETAILED PRODUCT ERROR BUDGETS AND UNCERTAINTY MAPS DOCUMENTING GLOBAL ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCT QUALITY. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL PROVIDE ROBUST VALIDATION AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT, AND POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENT OF THE L4_C PRODUCT TO ACHIEVE AND DEMONSTRATE PRODUCT SUCCESS WITHIN THE POST-LAUNCH CAL/VAL PERIOD. I WILL PROMOTE EARLY SCIENCE APPLICATION USE OF THE L4_C PRODUCT AS A LAND SURFACE PRIOR FOR ATMOSPHERIC CO2 MODEL INVERSION STUDIES. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL INVOLVE DEMONSTRATING USE OF THE L4_C PRODUCT WITHIN THE NOAA ESRL CARBONTRACKER (CT) AND SHOWING THE LINK BETWEEN TOP-DOWN ATMOSPHERE CARBON SOURCE/SINK ACTIVITY, AND BOTTOM-UP SMAP DERIVED NET ECOSYSTEM CO2 EXCHANGE AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL PROVIDE A MEANS FOR LINKING SMAP L4_C NEE OUTPUTS AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS WITH SYNERGISTIC CO2 OBSERVATIONS FROM SPARSE GLOBAL MONITORING NETWORKS (E.G. NOAA CMDL FLASK SITES) AND UPCOMING NASA MISSIONS, INCLUDING THE ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY (OCO-2). THESE ST CONTRIBUTIONS DIRECTLY ADDRESS CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE OBJECTIVES AS PUT FORTH IN THE DECADAL SURVEY, INCLUDING: 1) LINKING LANDSCAPE FT AND SOIL MOISTURE VARIABILITY TO CARBON EXCHANGE OVER NORTHERN AND GLOBAL LAND AREAS; 2) QUANTIFYING THE NET CARBON FLUX IN BOREAL LANDSCAPES, AND 3) REDUCING UNCERTAINTIES ABOUT THE PURPORTED MISSING SINK ON LAND FOR ATMOSPHERIC CO2.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AI50G  
Tuesday, March 7, 2017
$6,035.70
1400: Department of the Interior
140G02: US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

B: PURCHASE ORDER
"IGF::OT::IGF" PHOSPHORUS ANALYSIS - SEDIMENT SAMPLES
B532: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- SOIL

  ING17PX00369  
Tuesday, March 7, 2017
($359,815.47)
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
INTELLECTUAL MERIT THE ORIGIN AND FATE OF GENETIC DIVERSITY ARE CENTRAL ORGANIZING THEMES IN BIOLOGY, CRUCIAL TO UNDERSTANDING HOW LIFE AROSE AND EVOLVED ON EARTH, AND HOW LIFE MIGHT ARISE AND EVOLVE ON OTHER WORLDS. BECAUSE ALL LIFE FORMS ENCOUNTER SEVERELY ADVERSE CONDITIONS, IT IS NOT SURPRISING THAT SELECTION HAS FAVORED THE EVOLUTION OF MECHANISMS THAT CAN INCREASE POPULATION VARIATION BY ADJUSTING MUTATION RATE. SUCH INNOVATIONS COMPLICATE THE DYNAMIC INTERPLAY OF GENETIC VARIATION, SELECTION, AND MUTATION, WHICH TOGETHER DETERMINE THE TEMPO AND TRAJECTORY OF ADAPTATION AND THE LIKELIHOOD THAT NEW SPECIES ARISE. STRESS-RELATED MUTATIONS BOTH THOSE THAT RESULT IN LOCAL CHANGES IN DNA SEQUENCE AND THOSE THAT CAUSE LARGE-SCALE CHANGES IN GENOME ARCHITECTURE ARE NOW KNOWN TO PLAY DECISIVE ROLES IN THE EMERGENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND THE PROGRESSION OF CANCER. HERE, WE SEEK TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER THEY ALSO PLAY A ROLE IN SPECIATION ITSELF.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AK38G  
Friday, March 3, 2017
$79,500.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
LOW FIRST-IONIZATION-POTENTIAL (FIP) ELEMENTS EXPERIENCE RELATIVELY LITTLE FRACTIONATION IN ALL TYPES OF SOLAR WIND. BY CONTRAST, HIGH-FIP ELEMENTS ARE VARIABLY DEPLETED IN THE SOLAR WIND. THE DEPLETION APPEARS TO VARY OVER THE SOLAR CYCLE AND BY REGIME. IN ORDER TO CONNECT GENESIS MISSION-MEASURED ABUNDANCES BACK TO SOLAR ABUNDANCES, ESPECIALLY FOR THESE HIGH-FIP ELEMENTS, WE PROPOSE TO MEASURE THE ABUNDANCES OF C, N, AND O--THREE KEY HIGH-FIP ELEMENTS--IN THE DIFFERENT REGIME COLLECTORS TO UNDERSTAND THEIR BEHAVIOR IN THE DIFFERENT REGIMES. THIS HAS BEEN DONE FOR THE LIGHT NOBLE GASES, BUT C, N, AND O COVER A DIFFERENT REGION OF THE FIP PLOT, CLOSER TO THE LOW-FIP ELEMENTS BUT STILL CLEARLY FRACTIONATED RELATIVE TO THEM, BASED ON BULK WIND MEASUREMENTS.IN ADDITION, WE PROPOSE TO QUANTITATIVELY DETERMINE THE CHANGES IN FIP FRACTIONATION OVER THE COURSE OF THE SOLAR CYCLE. NEW RESULTS FROM THE ACE MISSION, JUST REPORTED LATE LAST YEAR, SHOW CLEAR NE/O FRACTIONATION CHANGES OVER THE COURSE OF THE CYCLE. GENESIS COLLECTED SOLAR WIND OVER THE SOLAR MAXIMUM AND THE FIRST PART OF THE DECLINING PHASE. BY COMPARING THE ACE DATA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THIS TIME PERIOD, WE CAN DETERMINE THE NEEDED CORRECTIONS TO OBTAIN THE SOLAR-CYCLE-AVERAGED COMPOSITIONS, HELPING US TO DETERMINE THE TRUE SOLAR COMPOSITIONS. THESE CORRECTIONS WILL EXTEND TO ISOTOPIC RATIOS FOR WHICH GENESIS PROVIDES A UNIQUE WINDOW INTO SOLAR COMPOSITIONS. BY PROVIDING DATA TO IMPROVE THE UNDERSTANDING OF ELEMENTAL FRACTIONATION, WE EXPECT IMPROVED SOLAR-WIND ACCELERATION THEORIES TO COMPREHENSIVELY PREDICT CORRECTIONS FOR ISOTOPIC FRACTIONATIONS AS WELL.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AG19G  
Wednesday, February 22, 2017
$0.00
1400: Department of the Interior
140F06: US FISH AND WILDLIFE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
"IGF::OT::IGF" WATER HOWELLIA DISTURBANCES ANALYSIS
R405: SUPPORT- PROFESSIONAL: OPERATIONS RESEARCH/QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

  INF17PX00453  
Tuesday, February 21, 2017
$50,000.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
12024B: USDA FOREST SERVICE

A: BPA CALL
IGF::CT::IGF COURSE DELIVERY/PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTOR SERVICES FOR THE WILDLAND FIRE APPRENTICE PROGRAM AGAINST THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA BPA
U008: EDUCATION/TRAINING- TRAINING/CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

  AG024BK160011     AG024BB150002  
Wednesday, February 8, 2017
$3,289.00
1400: Department of the Interior
140F06: US FISH AND WILDLIFE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
"IGF::OT::IGF" WATER HOWELLIA DISTURBANCES ANALYSIS
R405: SUPPORT- PROFESSIONAL: OPERATIONS RESEARCH/QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

  INF17PX00453  
Friday, January 20, 2017
$0.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
12024B: USDA FOREST SERVICE

A: BPA CALL
IGF::CT::IGF COURSE DELIVERY/PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTOR SERVICES FOR THE WILDLAND FIRE APPRENTICE PROGRAM AGAINST THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA BPA
U008: EDUCATION/TRAINING- TRAINING/CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

  AG024BK160011     AG024BB150002  
Wednesday, January 18, 2017
($163.78)
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
IN 2007, WHILE ON THE IGBP SCIENCE COMMITTEE, I ORIGINATED THE IDEA OF BUILDING WHAT BECAME THE IGBP CLIMATE CHANGE INDEX AS A MEANS TO TRANSLATE THE RAW SCIENTIFIC DATA INTO A MORE PALATABLE AND ACCURATE BUT SIMPLIFIED METRIC FOR THE PUBLIC AND POLICY MAKERS. IN THE LAST 5 YEARS I HAVE SPEND ALOT OF TIME THINKING ABOUT HOW BEST TO DO THIS. CONCURRENTLY I HAVE BEEN EVALUATING WHAT VARIABLES ARE BOTH OF CLIMATE SIGNIFICANCE, AS A FORCING OR AN IMPACT, AND HOW GOOD ARE THE DATASETS THAT REPRESENT EACH ONE. I THINK SINCE NASA IS THE LEADER OF DEVELOPING NEW BIOPHYSICAL GEOSPATIAL DATASETS, THAT WE SHOULD PROTOTYPE NATIONAL INDICATOR MAPS, AND SEE HOW WELL THEY ARE ACCEPTED BY THE LARGER NATIONAL ASSESSMENT COMMUNITY. SO I PROPOSE TO USE SOME OF OUR EXISTING MODIS LAND DATASETS TO BUILD TEST MAPS. I HAVE FOUND MAPS OF BIOPHYSICAL DATA ARE MOST EASILY INTERPRETED WHEN THEY ARE A RELATIVE ANOMALY, OR DEPARTURE FROM NORMAL RATHER THAN SOME ABSOLUTE MEASURE IN AWKWARD OR UNFAMILIAR UNITS. A WELL BUILT ANOMALY MAP WOULD IMPLICITLY DEFINE NORMAL AS THE 0 POINT, WITH DEPARTURES ABOVE OR BELOW NORMAL THAT ARE DEEMED SIGNIFICANT COLORED IN CLEARLY OPPOSING COLORS. THE WIDTH OF THE 0 POINT IMPLIES NON-SIGNIFICANT VARIABILITY. SO I PROPOSE TO USE THE ONGOING 12+ YEAR MODIS RECORD TO BUILD ANOMALY MAPS IN IDENTICAL FORMAT FOR ANNUAL: SPECTRAL VEGETATION INDEX ANOMALY, NDVI OR EVI LAI NPP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION GROWING SEASON LENGTH SNOWCOVER DURATION % FOREST DISTURBED BY FIRE, INSECT EPIDEMICS OR OTHER MORTALITY IT IS IMPORTANT TO EVALUATE EACH YEAR, AND EACH PIXEL ON THE BASIS OF WHAT WOULD BE NORMAL . NOW THAT WE HAVE 12YR OF MODIS RECORD WE CAN COMPUTE A 12 AVERAGE FOR EACH PIXEL/VARIABLE, THEN IN FORWARD PROCESSING MEASURE THE CURRENT YEAR AGAINST THIS NORMAL. THE AUDIENCE THEN CAN EASILY UNDERSTAND IF THE CURRENT YEAR IS ABOVE OR BELOW AVERAGE FOR EACH METRIC.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX13AO04G  
Friday, December 9, 2016
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

T: TRAINING GRANT
FORESTS COVER APPROXIMATELY 30% OF THE EARTH'S LAND SURFACE AND ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ABOUT 45% OF GLOBAL TERRESTRIAL CARBON (C) STORAGE. THE SEVERITY AND FREQUENCY OF ECOSYSTEM DISTURBANCE IS INCREASING GLOBALLY DUE TO WARMING TEMPERATURES AND SHIFTS IN PRECIPITATION PATTERNS. INCREASING FOREST DISTURBANCE- RELATED MORTALITY MAY BE DUE TO INCREASES IN WATER STRESS, WHICH MAY REDUCE THE RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS. RESISTANCE IS THE CAPACITY OF AN ECOSYSTEM TO REMAIN UNCHANGED IN RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE, WHEREAS RESILIENCE IS THE ABILITY OF AN ECOSYSTEM TO RECOVER. THE OBSERVED CHANGES IN DISTURBANCE REGIMES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO GREATLY ALTER THE C UPTAKE POTENTIAL OF FORESTS. HOWEVER, WHILE INCREASES IN DISTURBANCE-RELATED MORTALITY SUGGEST THAT TERRESTRIAL C UPTAKE SHOULD BE DECREASING, GLOBAL C BALANCE STUDIES FIND TERRESTRIAL C UPTAKE TO BE STABLE OR EVEN INCREASING, POTENTIALLY DUE TO THE INFLUENCE OF CO2 FERTILIZATION ON FOREST RESILIENCE. RECONCILING THE RESULTS OF DISTURBANCE-RELATED MORTALITY STUDIES WITH RESULTS FROM FOREST C BALANCE STUDIES REMAINS A CHALLENGE FOR EARTH SYSTEM SCIENTISTS. I PROPOSE TO INVESTIGATE THE RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE OF FORESTS TO CHANGES IN DISTURBANCE REGIMES AND ULTIMATELY HOW THESE CHANGES HAVE AFFECTED FOREST NET C BALANCE. WHILE DISTURBANCE MAY BE INCREASING GLOBALLY, DISTURBANCE IMPACTS ON FOREST C UPTAKE MIGHT NOT BE CHANGING SIGNIFICANTLY. ADDITIONALLY, NOT ALL DISTURBANCE AGENTS (E.G. FIRE, DROUGHT, AND INSECTS) WILL INCREASE IN FREQUENCY AND/OR SEVERITY, NOR WILL THEY ALL HAVE THE SAME IMPACTS ON FOREST C CARBON BALANCE. EACH DISTURBANCE AGENT SHOULD BE EXAMINED INDIVIDUALLY TO BEST UNDERSTAND FUTURE FOREST SCENARIOS. I PROPOSE TO USE 30 METER LANDSAT REFLECTANCE DATA AND THE COMMUNITY LAND MODEL (CLM) TO DETERMINE THE C IMPACTS OF DISTURBANCES IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES FROM 1984 2100. DISTURBANCE-RELATED BIOMASS MORTALITY FROM 1984,2010 WILL BE DETECTED AND QUANTIFIED BY APPLYING A FOREST DISTURBANCE ALGORITHM THAT I HAVE DEVELOPED TO LANDSAT DATA. DETECTED BIOMASS MORTALITY WILL THEN BE ASSIGNED TO PARTICULAR DISTURBANCE AGENTS USING BAYESIAN CLASSIFICATION, AND FINALLY, AREAS WILL BE EVALUATED FOR POTENTIAL C RELEASE USING CLM. DISTURBANCE IMPACTS ON FOREST C UPTAKE CAPACITY FROM 2010 2100 WILL BE SIMULATED USING THE PAST DISTURBANCE LANDSCAPE MOSAIC AS BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR CLM SIMULATIONS. THE PROPOSED RESEARCH APPLIES DIRECTLY TO THE NASA 2014 STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2.2, TO ADVANCE KNOWLEDGE OF THE EARTH AS A SYSTEM TO MEET THE CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, AND TO IMPROVE LIFE ON OUR PLANET, AND WILL ALSO HELP TO INFORM OTHER CURRENT NASA MISSIONS SUCH AS THE GLOBAL C MONITORING SYSTEM (CMS) AS WELL AS THE ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY (OCO-2). THIS RESEARCH WILL INVESTIGATE THE RESILIENCE OF FORESTS IN ORDER TO ENSURE THAT FORESTS CONTINUE TO PROVIDE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES THAT ARE VITAL TO SOCIETY.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AN16H  
Monday, December 5, 2016
($8.90)
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

T: TRAINING GRANT
RECENT SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING STUDIES AND FIELD OBSERVATIONS INDICATE LARGE CHANGES IN SURFACE WATER INUNDATION DYNAMICS ASSOCIATED WITH A WARMING CLIMATE AND DEGRADING PERMAFROST IN THE ARCTIC-BOREAL REGION (ABR). DYNAMIC CHANGES IN SURFACE WATER INUNDATION AND SOIL WETNESS REPRESENT A SUBSTANTIAL SOURCE OF UNCERTAINTY FOR QUANTIFYING HIGH LATITUDE CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) AND METHANE (CH4) FLUXES, WHICH ARE A MAJOR SOURCE OF ATMOSPHERE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SURFACE WETNESS AND TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE VEGETATION PRODUCTIVITY, RESPIRATION PROCESSES AND CARBON (CO2 AND CH4) EMISSIONS, WHICH COLLECTIVELY DETERMINE THE NET ECOSYSTEM CARBON BUDGET (NECB). THIS RESEARCH WILL ADDRESS THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: (1) HOW WELL CAN A REMOTE SENSING-BASED MODELING APPROACH QUANTIFY SEASONAL AND DAILY CO2 AND CH4 EXCHANGE COMPARED TO FLUX TOWER OBSERVATIONS WITHIN THE ABR? (2) HOW ARE RECENT CHANGES IN WETNESS (E.G. SURFACE WATER INUNDATION), TEMPERATURE, AND NON-FROZEN PERIOD AFFECTING THE NORTHERN NECB GIVEN POTENTIALLY CONTRASTING RESPONSES IN VEGETATION PRODUCTIVITY, ECOSYSTEM CO2 RESPIRATION AND CH4 EMISSION? (3) WHAT ARE THE PATTERNS AND VARIABILITY IN CARBON SOURCE AND SINK ACTIVITY OVER THE ABR AND PERMAFROST AFFECTED LANDSCAPES, AND THE PRIMARY ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS DRIVING THIS VARIABILITY? WE WILL UTILIZE RECENTLY VALIDATED SATELLITE MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING RETRIEVALS OF DAILY FRACTIONAL OPEN WATER COVER AND LANDSCAPE FREEZE-THAW STATUS WITH OTHER LAND PARAMETERS, INCLUDING RADAR (SAR) BASED WETLAND AND LAKE MAPS, TO CLARIFY CARBON EMISSIONS FOR THE ABR BY IMPROVING REPRESENTATION OF TEMPORAL CHANGES IN SURFACE WATER EXTENT. WE WILL DERIVE TERRESTRIAL CARBON EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR THE ABR USING A REMOTE-SENSING BASED TERRESTRIAL CARBON FLUX MODEL FOR SIMULTANEOUS PREDICTION OF DAILY NET ECOSYSTEM CO2 EXCHANGE AND CH4 EMISSIONS. WE WILL PRODUCE A COMPREHENSIVE, VALIDATED RECORD OF ABR CO2 AND CH4 EXCHANGE AND ASSOCIATED UNCERTAINTY TO CLARIFY THE NORTHERN CARBON CYCLE RESPONSE TO RECENT CLIMATE VARIABILITY. INFORMATION GAINED FROM THIS STUDY WILL SUPPORT EVALUATION OF REGIONAL CARBON SOURCE/SINK ACTIVITY WITHIN THE ABR, INCLUDING CONTRIBUTIONS FROM TERRESTRIAL AND LAKE SOURCES, WHICH ADDRESSES KEY SCIENCE QUESTIONS OF THE NASA LED ARCTIC-BOREAL VULNERABILITY EXPERIMENT (ABOVE) AND CARBON IN ARCTIC RESERVOIRS VULNERABILITY EXPERIMENT (CARVE). THIS WORK WILL ALSO INFORM ALGORITHM AND CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT FOR THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) DECADAL SURVEY MISSION.
U009: EDUCATION/TRAINING- GENERAL

  NNX13AM92H  
Thursday, November 17, 2016
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80ARC0: NASA AMES RESEARCH CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
FPDS BASE DESCRIPTION, MULTIPLE YEAR AWARD AND INCREMENTAL FUNDING FOR YEARS ONE TO FIVE. THIS PROPOSAL IS ENTITLED, "RELIVING THE PAST: EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION OF MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE HISTORY OF LIFE." THIS IS AWARDED IN RESPONSE TO COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NOTICE (CAN) NO. NNH13ZDA017C, NASA ASTROBIOLOGY INSTITUTE, CYCLE SEVEN (7). THE PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR IS DR. RAPHAEL F. ROSENZWEIG WITH UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA (UMT). PROJECT SUMMARY: TO ILLUMINATE THE LAWS THAT PRODUCE DARWIN'S "TANGLED BANK" REMAINS ONE OF BIOLOGY'S GRAND CHALLENGES, ONE THAT REQUIRES UNDERSTANDING HOW DIFFERENCES AMOUNT FORMS ARE SELECTED FOR AND HOW INTERDEPENDENCE AMOUNT FORMS IS ENFORCED. IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS, MEETING THIS CHALLENGE IS COMPLICATED BY THE FACT THAT SELECTION PRESSURES OFTEN VARY WIDELY OVER SPACE AND THROUGH TIME. LABORATORY EVOLUTION EXPERIMENTS WITH MICROBIAL POPULATION OFFER AN ATTRACTIVE ALTERNATIVE BY WHICH TO STUDY, UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS, BOTH THE DYNAMIC INTERPLAY BETWEEN GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE AND THE INTERACTIONS AMONG PHENOTYPES IN SIMPLE COMMUNITIES. INDEED, BECAUSE THE PRINCIPAL ACTORS IN THE FIRST 2.5 BILLION YEARS OF LIFE'S DRAMA WERE EXCLUSIVELY MICROBES, WE ARE OBLIGATED TO USE THESE FORMS TO UNLOCK THE SECRETS OF LIFE'S TRANSITIONS FROM SIMPLE AUTOCATALYTIC UNITS TO SELF-ORGANIZING, SELF-REPLICATING, ENERGY TRANSDUCTION SYSTEMS THAT RANGE IN COMPLEXITY FROM SINGLE CELLS TO ECOSYSTEMS. OUR TEAM IS RESPONDING TO NAI CAN 7 WITH A MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROPOSAL TO ADDRESS: WHAT FORCES BRING ABOUT MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE EVOLUTION OF BIO-COMPLEXITY? OUR PROGRAM AIMS TO MEET THE GRANT CHALLENGE OF ILLUMINATING AND INTERPRETING THE LAWS THAT PRODUCE THE "TANGLED BANK" SO THAT WE MAY BETTER UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE THE GRANDEUR IN THE VIEW OF LIFE....THAT, WHILST THIS PLANET HAS GONE CYCLING ON ACCORDING TO THE FIXED LAW OF GRAVITY, FROM SO SIMPLE A BEGINNING ENDLESS FORMS MOST BEAUTIFUL AND MOST WONDERFUL HAVE BEEN, AND ARE BEING, EVOLVED. THE LAWS ORIGINAL INFERRED BY DARWIN WERE THOSE THAT GIVE RISE TO NATURAL SELECTION, WHICH IS A CONSEQUENCE OF NATURAL VARIATION, INHERITANCE OF VARIATION, AND THE DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVORSHIP OF VARIANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR FITNESS. 150 YEAR LATER WE NOW RECOGNIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF OTHER FACTORS, IN PARTICULAR CHANGE, WHETHER IN THE FORM OF GENETIC DRIFT OR HISTORICAL CONTINGENCY. OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE MECHANISM OF INHERITANCE CONTINUES TO BE REFINED BY NEW INSIGHTS INTO WHAT CONSTITUTES A GENE, HOW GENES INTERACT AND HOW MUTATION RATE ITSELF IS SUBJECT TO NATURAL SELECTION. OUR ASTROBIOLOGY PROJECT IS ORGANIZED AROUND A SET OF QUESTIONS RELATED TO MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE HISTORY OF LIFE, WHEN INDEPENDENTLY REPLICATING ENTITIES COMBINE IN TO LARGER, MORE COMPLEX WHOLES: (I) HOW DO ENZYMES AND METABOLIC NETWORKS EVOLVE?, (II) HOW DID THE EUKARYOTIC CELL, SPECIFICALLY THE CELL THAT CONTAINED A MITOCHONDRION, COME TO BE?, (III) HOW DO SYMBIOSES ARISE?, (IV) HOW DOES MULTICELLULARITY EVOLVE?, AND (V) HOW DO PLEIOTROPY, EPISTASIS AND MUTATION RATE CONSTRAIN THE EVOLUTION OF NOVEL TRAITS? A UNIFYING THEM UNDERLYING THESE QUESTIONS IS: HOW DO COOPERATIVE VS. COMPETITIVE INTERACTIONS PLAY OUT IN DRIVING MAJOR TRANSITIONS? SEEKING THE ANSWERS TO THESE QUESTIONS FALLS SQUARELY WITHIN ASTROBIOLOGY, WHICH IS THE STUDY OF THE ORIGINS, EVOLUTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND FUTURE OF LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE, AND HELPS TO ADDRESS THE FIRST OF OUR DISCIPLINE'S THREE PRINCIPAL QUESTIONS: HOW DOES LIFE BEGIN AND EVOLVE?
AR11: R&D- SPACE: AERONAUTICS/SPACE TECHNOLOGY (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNA15BB04A     NNH13ZDA017C  
Monday, November 7, 2016
$45,000.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
1203R6: USDA FOREST SERVICE

D: DEFINITIVE CONTRACT
DB MAINTENANCE&MANAGEMENT FOR POPULATION OCCURRENCE RECORDS OF THREATENED, ENDANGERED&SENSITIVE SPECIES IN MT. IGF::OT::IGF
B509: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- ENDANGERED SPECIES: PLANT/ANIMAL

  AG03R6C160006  
Wednesday, October 5, 2016
$91,311.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
120343: USDA FOREST SERVICE

D: DEFINITIVE CONTRACT
IGF::OT::IGF FACILITY AND SUPPORT FOR THE NORTHERN REGION UNIVERSITY (NRU)AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA IGF::OT::IGF
W099: LEASE OR RENTAL OF EQUIPMENT- MISCELLANEOUS

  AG03R6C140009  
Saturday, October 1, 2016
$4,410.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
1203R6: USDA FOREST SERVICE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
THIRD-PARTY BULK BILLED PHONE SERVICE FROM UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA TO CARHART CENTER IGF::OT::IGF
D399: IT AND TELECOM- OTHER IT AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS

  AG03R6P170034  
Friday, September 9, 2016
$240,107.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
UNDERSTANDING HOW SPECIES AND HABITATS ARE LIKELY TO RESPOND TO CLIMATE WARMING IS CRITICAL IN DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS. WE PROPOSE TO LINK HIGH-RESOLUTION SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING MAPPING OF FRESHWATER HABITATS WITH GENETIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND SPATIALLY EXPLICIT HYDROLOGICAL AND THERMAL MODEL OUTPUTS TO ASSESS THE VULNERABILITY OF SALMON POPULATIONS UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS AND FUTURE CLIMATE SCENARIOS. WE WILL ANSWER IMPORTANT CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT QUESTIONS REGARDING THE DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE, PHYSICAL COMPLEXITY, AND QUALITY OF FRESHWATER HABITATS AVAILABLE TO SALMON AND TROUT NOW AND UNDER PROJECTED CLIMATE CHANGE. WE WILL TRAIN ANGLERS (CROWDSOURCING) TO COLLECT IMAGES PAIRED WITH DNA SAMPLES FROM FISH TO ASSESS GENOMIC DIVERSITY AND CONNECTIVITY (GENE FLOW) AMONG MANY STREAMS AND SPECIES ACROSS THE PACIFIC RIM. THIS WORK WILL BUILD UPON AN EXISTING CONSERVATION DECISION SUPPORT WEB SYSTEM FOR WILD SALMON CONSERVATION (RAP: RIVERSCAPE ANALYSIS PROJECT; HTTP://RAP.NTSG.UMT.EDU), WHICH INCLUDES SPATIALLY EXPLICIT MAPPING OF SALMONID PHYSICAL FRESHWATER HABITATS AND PREDICTIONS OF POTENTIAL SALMON HABITATS, THEIR RELATIVE QUALITY, AND POTENTIAL VULNERABILITY. WE WILL ENHANCE THE RAP WEB SYSTEM BY IMPLEMENTING NEW SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING MEASURES OF RIPARIAN ZONE HABITAT QUALITY, AND GENETIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC INDICES OF SALMONID POPULATION VULNERABILITY DERIVED FROM LANDSCAPE GENETIC AND INDIVIDUAL-BASED SIMULATION MODELS OF POPULATION CONNECTIVITY AND ABUNDANCE. WE INITIALLY WILL FOCUS ON THE YUKON AND COLUMBIA RIVERS TO ASSESS NEW RAP METRICS ACROSS SPATIAL SCALES AND BECAUSE THE BEST AVAILABLE TIME-SERIES GENETIC AND ABUNDANCE EXIST FOR SALMONIDS IN THESE RIVERS (INCLUDING ENDANGERED CHINOOK SALMON, CHUM SALMON, AND THREATENED BULL TROUT). IN YEARS 2-4, WE WOULD ASSESS NEW RAP METRICS IN>1500 PACIFIC RIM RIVERS. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL BE USED WITH DECISION MAKERS TO IDENTIFY AND ASSESS VULNERABLE POPULATIONS, SPECIES AND ECOSYSTEMS, DESIGN LONG-TERM MONITORING PROGRAMS, INFORM FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS, AND DEVELOP CONSERVATION DELIVERY OPTIONS IN RESPONSE TO MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AB84G  
Thursday, August 18, 2016
$30,000.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

T: TRAINING GRANT
FORESTS COVER APPROXIMATELY 30% OF THE EARTH'S LAND SURFACE AND ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ABOUT 45% OF GLOBAL TERRESTRIAL CARBON (C) STORAGE. THE SEVERITY AND FREQUENCY OF ECOSYSTEM DISTURBANCE IS INCREASING GLOBALLY DUE TO WARMING TEMPERATURES AND SHIFTS IN PRECIPITATION PATTERNS. INCREASING FOREST DISTURBANCE- RELATED MORTALITY MAY BE DUE TO INCREASES IN WATER STRESS, WHICH MAY REDUCE THE RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS. RESISTANCE IS THE CAPACITY OF AN ECOSYSTEM TO REMAIN UNCHANGED IN RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE, WHEREAS RESILIENCE IS THE ABILITY OF AN ECOSYSTEM TO RECOVER. THE OBSERVED CHANGES IN DISTURBANCE REGIMES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO GREATLY ALTER THE C UPTAKE POTENTIAL OF FORESTS. HOWEVER, WHILE INCREASES IN DISTURBANCE-RELATED MORTALITY SUGGEST THAT TERRESTRIAL C UPTAKE SHOULD BE DECREASING, GLOBAL C BALANCE STUDIES FIND TERRESTRIAL C UPTAKE TO BE STABLE OR EVEN INCREASING, POTENTIALLY DUE TO THE INFLUENCE OF CO2 FERTILIZATION ON FOREST RESILIENCE. RECONCILING THE RESULTS OF DISTURBANCE-RELATED MORTALITY STUDIES WITH RESULTS FROM FOREST C BALANCE STUDIES REMAINS A CHALLENGE FOR EARTH SYSTEM SCIENTISTS. I PROPOSE TO INVESTIGATE THE RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE OF FORESTS TO CHANGES IN DISTURBANCE REGIMES AND ULTIMATELY HOW THESE CHANGES HAVE AFFECTED FOREST NET C BALANCE. WHILE DISTURBANCE MAY BE INCREASING GLOBALLY, DISTURBANCE IMPACTS ON FOREST C UPTAKE MIGHT NOT BE CHANGING SIGNIFICANTLY. ADDITIONALLY, NOT ALL DISTURBANCE AGENTS (E.G. FIRE, DROUGHT, AND INSECTS) WILL INCREASE IN FREQUENCY AND/OR SEVERITY, NOR WILL THEY ALL HAVE THE SAME IMPACTS ON FOREST C CARBON BALANCE. EACH DISTURBANCE AGENT SHOULD BE EXAMINED INDIVIDUALLY TO BEST UNDERSTAND FUTURE FOREST SCENARIOS. I PROPOSE TO USE 30 METER LANDSAT REFLECTANCE DATA AND THE COMMUNITY LAND MODEL (CLM) TO DETERMINE THE C IMPACTS OF DISTURBANCES IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES FROM 1984 2100. DISTURBANCE-RELATED BIOMASS MORTALITY FROM 1984,2010 WILL BE DETECTED AND QUANTIFIED BY APPLYING A FOREST DISTURBANCE ALGORITHM THAT I HAVE DEVELOPED TO LANDSAT DATA. DETECTED BIOMASS MORTALITY WILL THEN BE ASSIGNED TO PARTICULAR DISTURBANCE AGENTS USING BAYESIAN CLASSIFICATION, AND FINALLY, AREAS WILL BE EVALUATED FOR POTENTIAL C RELEASE USING CLM. DISTURBANCE IMPACTS ON FOREST C UPTAKE CAPACITY FROM 2010 2100 WILL BE SIMULATED USING THE PAST DISTURBANCE LANDSCAPE MOSAIC AS BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR CLM SIMULATIONS. THE PROPOSED RESEARCH APPLIES DIRECTLY TO THE NASA 2014 STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2.2, TO ADVANCE KNOWLEDGE OF THE EARTH AS A SYSTEM TO MEET THE CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, AND TO IMPROVE LIFE ON OUR PLANET, AND WILL ALSO HELP TO INFORM OTHER CURRENT NASA MISSIONS SUCH AS THE GLOBAL C MONITORING SYSTEM (CMS) AS WELL AS THE ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY (OCO-2). THIS RESEARCH WILL INVESTIGATE THE RESILIENCE OF FORESTS IN ORDER TO ENSURE THAT FORESTS CONTINUE TO PROVIDE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES THAT ARE VITAL TO SOCIETY.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AN16H  
Monday, August 15, 2016
$215,099.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
BIOMASS BURNING IS THE LARGEST GLOBAL SOURCE OF PRIMARY FINE ORGANIC AEROSOL (~50 TG/YR) AND THE SECOND LARGEST SOURCE OF REACTIVE NON-METHANE ORGANIC GASES (NMOG, ~500 TG/YR). THESE EMISSIONS HAVE MASSIVE IMPACTS ON ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, CHEMISTRY, AND CLIMATE ON LOCAL TO GLOBAL SCALES. RAPID AND VARIABLE TRANSFORMATIONS, BOTH WITHIN AND BETWEEN THESE ORGANIC POOLS, PRODUCE OZONE AND SECONDARY AEROSOL AND IMPACT COMPOSITION AND CLIMATE IN NUMEROUS OTHER WAYS. THE INFLUENCE OF BIOMASS BURNING HAS BEEN HARD TO QUANTIFY IN PART BECAUSE IMPORTANT TYPES OF BURNING ARE UNDERSAMPLED AND CASE STUDIES OF SMOKE PLUME EVOLUTION THAT ARE SUFFICIENTLY WELL-CHARACTERIZED TO CONSTRAIN MODELS HAVE BEEN DIFFICULT TO OBTAIN. RECENT NASA AIRBORNE CAMPAIGNS HAVE ADDRESSED THESE LIMITATIONS BY CAREFULLY MEASURING BOTH THE TRANSPORT HISTORY AND THE INITIAL AND EVOLVING CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SMOKE FROM IMPORTANT, PREVIOUSLY-UNDERSAMPLED TYPES OF BIOMASS BURNING SUCH AS TEMPERATE WILDFIRES AND CROP RESIDUE BURNING (I.E. AGRICULTURAL FIRES). THE COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL MEASUREMENTS INCLUDED BIOMASS BURNING TRACERS, PREVIOUSLY-UNQUANTIFIED GAS-PHASE PRECURSORS, AND SPECIATED AEROSOL FROM ADVANCED ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES. THE DATA FROM THESE CAMPAIGNS COULD GREATLY REDUCE THE UNCERTAINTY IN BIOMASS BURNING EMISSIONS AND THEIR IMPACTS ON ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, BUT REALIZING THIS POTENTIAL REQUIRES A CAREFUL, INTENSIVE ANALYSIS EFFORT. IN THIS PROJECT WE WILL PERFORM SUCH AN ANALYSIS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON THREE RECENT NASA AIRBORNE CAMPAIGNS: SEAC4RS (STUDIES OF EMISSIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, CLOUDS AND CLIMATE COUPLING BY REGIONAL SURVEYS), DC3 (DEEP CONVECTION CLOUDS&CHEMISTRY), AND DISCOVER-AQ (DERIVING INFORMATION ON SURFACE CONDITIONS FROM COLUMN AND VERTICALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS RELEVANT TO AIR QUALITY). THESE CAMPAIGNS USED STATE-OF-THE-ART ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES TO SAMPLE SMOKE FROM NUMEROUS AGRICULTURAL AND TEMPERATE WILDFIRES. THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS PROJECT (IN EXPANDED FORM) ARE: (1) TO CREATE A NEW DATASET OF NORMALIZED EXCESS MIXING RATIOS OF MANY NMOGS (AND SELECTED OTHER SPECIES) IN BIOMASS BURNING PLUMES AS FUNCTION OF FUEL AND FIRE TYPE, TRANSPORT HISTORY, AND TIME SINCE EMISSION THROUGH CAREFUL ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTED DURING SEAC4RS, DC3, AND DISCOVER-AQ. (2) TO USE THIS DATASET TO CALCULATE EMISSION FACTORS FOR MANY IMPORTANT NMOGS INCLUDING PREVIOUSLY UNDERSAMPLED FIRE TYPES, BIOMASS BURNING TRACERS, AND SEVERAL GASES NOT PREVIOUSLY MEASURED IN BIOMASS BURNING SMOKE. (3) TO IDENTIFY CASE STUDIES FROM THESE CAMPAIGNS THAT CAN BE USED TO CONSTRAIN AND IMPROVE MODELS OF THE IMPACTS OF BIOMASS BURNING ON ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, AIR QUALITY, AND CLIMATE. THE PROJECT DELIVERABLES WILL INCREMENTALLY, BUT SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCE UNCERTAINTY IN SEVERAL IMPORTANT DEGREES OF FREEDOM ASSOCIATED WITH ONE OF THE MOST COMPLICATED AND INFLUENTIAL EMISSION SOURCES ON EARTH. THIS WILL IMPROVE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION AND OUR ABILITY TO PREDICT FUTURE COMPOSITION CHANGES; BOTH OF WHICH ARE KEY GOALS OF THE NASA ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION FOCUS AREA. SPECIFICALLY, THE PROJECT WILL DECREASE UNCERTAINTY IN BOTTOM-UP MODELING OF THE ATMOSPHERE AT LOCAL TO GLOBAL SCALES AND ALSO ENABLE BETTER-CONSTRAINED TOP-DOWN ESTIMATES OF FUEL CONSUMPTION AND CO-EMITTED GREENHOUSE GASES. REDUCED UNCERTAINTY IN A MAJOR GLOBAL SOURCE SUCH AS BIOMASS BURNING WILL ALSO REDUCE UNCERTAINTY IN MANY OTHER SOURCES AND PROCESSES WITH IMPORTANT ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND CLIMATE IMPACTS, BECAUSE THESE OTHER PHENOMENA ARE FREQUENTLY IMPACTED BY MIXING WITH BIOMASS BURNING EMISSIONS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AP45G  
Thursday, August 11, 2016
$2,000.00
6800: Environmental Protection Agency
68HE08: REGION 8 CONTRACTING OFFICE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
IGF::OT::IGF CONNECTIVITY GAP ANALYSIS IN THE CROWN OF THE CONTINENT
R499: SUPPORT- PROFESSIONAL: OTHER

  EP168000017  
Tuesday, July 19, 2016
($27.67)
1200: Department of Agriculture
123187: USDA FOREST SERVICE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
IGF::OT::IGF THIS MODIFICATION IS ISSUED TO FACILITATE CONTRACT CLOSEOUT. NO FURTHER INVOICES SHALL BE PROCESSED AGAINST THIS ORDER. PREPARE A PROGRAM OF STUDY AND TRAINING FOR AN ISRAELI SCIENTIST PER ATTACHED STATEMENT OF WORK
R799: SUPPORT- MANAGEMENT: OTHER

  AG3187P130049  
Saturday, July 9, 2016
$57,712.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
ARCTIC-BOREAL REGIONS (ABRS) OF NORTH AMERICA ARE WARMING AT A RATE ALMOST THREE TIMES HIGHER THAN THE GLOBAL AVERAGE, AND THE BIOPHYSICAL RESPONSES ARE ACUTE. MOST REGIONAL SCALE STUDIES TO DATE HAVE EXPLORED CONSEQUENCES ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING AND ENERGY BALANCE. FAR LESS ATTENTION HAS BEEN PAID TO THE VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE OF WILDLIFE THROUGHOUT THE ABR, DESPITE THE FACT THAT THE REGION HOSTS THE PLANET S MOST DIVERSE NEOTROPICAL MIGRANT SONGBIRD COMMUNITIES, CARIBOU WHICH ARE AMONG THE MOST ABUNDANT LONG RANGE MIGRATORY LARGE HERBIVORES IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE, AND INTACT YET THREATENED MAMMALIAN TROPHIC SYSTEMS. MANY ABR SPECIES PLAY UNIQUE ECOLOGICAL ROLES AND ARE OF CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE TO INDIGENOUS PEOPLE. MANY RECENT STUDIES SUGGEST THAT ANIMAL HABITAT THROUGHOUT THE ABR IS UNDERGOING RAPID AND PROFOUND CHANGE. FOR EXAMPLE, THE REGION IS UNDERGOING ALTERED VEGETATION PRODUCTIVITY, PHENOLOGY, COMPOSITION, AND BIO-PHYSICAL AND -CHEMICAL STRUCTURES; MORE EXTREME SWINGS IN SEASONALITY OF METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS; MORE FREQUENT DROUGHT CONDITIONS; CHANGES IN SNOW AND ICE COVER PROPERTIES, DYNAMICS AND DURATION; ENHANCEMENT OF DISTURBANCE REGIMES, AND; INCREASING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. EACH OF THESE CHANGES ALTERS WILDLIFE HABITAT IN UNIQUE WAYS - VERY OFTEN OVERLAPPING AND INTERACTING WITH ONE ANOTHER IN TIME AND SPACE. IN ADDITION, THERE IS HIGH SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY IN BOTH THE DIRECTION AND MAGNITUDE OF THESE CHANGES ACROSS THE ABR, YET LITTLE EFFORT HAS BEEN MADE TO UNDERSTAND THE ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES. HIGHLY MOBILE FAUNA OF THE ABR MUST NAVIGATE THROUGH AN INCREASINGLY COMPLEX AND DYNAMIC MOSAIC OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND LAND SURFACE CONDITIONS, BUT HOW VULNERABLE OR RESISTANT THEIR LONG-TERM PERSISTENCE IS TO THE INCREASING SPATIOTEMPORAL HETEROGENEITY IS UNKNOWN. ALTHOUGH THERE HAS BEEN SOME FOCUS ON HOW CHANGING CONDITIONS IN THE ABR AFFECT WILDLIFE HABITAT QUALITY AND SELECTION, THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF THESE STUDIES HAVE FOCUSED ON HOW HABITAT SELECTION BY ONE SPECIES (OR COMMUNITY OF SIMILAR SPECIES) RESPONDS TO A SINGLE EXTREME OR DISTURBANCE EVENT. RECENT AND EMERGING ADVANCES IN SPACE-BASED ANIMAL TRACKING TECHNOLOGY ALLOW DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF WILDLIFE MOVEMENTS ACROSS ANIMAL TAXA, OVER VAST AND REMOTE REGIONS, AND OVER MULTIPLE YEARS. IMPORTANTLY, THESE REGIONAL-SCALE AND NEAR-CONTINUOUS DESCRIPTIONS OF ANIMAL LOCATIONS CAN BE EXPLICITLY LINKED TO REMOTE SENSING OBSERVATIONS OF DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, WHICH ENABLES EXAMINATION OF ANIMAL RESPONSES TO A WIDE RANGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND EXTREME EVENTS THAT OCCUR - OFTEN UNPREDICTABLY - THROUGHOUT THEIR RANGES AND LIFE HISTORIES. OUR OVERARCHING SCIENCE GOAL IS TO UNDERSTAND HOW HIGHLY MOBILE TERRESTRIAL FAUNA NAVIGATE AND SELECT HABITAT IN THE RAPIDLY CHANGING ABOVE STUDY DOMAIN. FACILITATED BY MANY DATA-SHARING COLLABORATIONS WITH US AND CANADIAN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, WE WILL USE SPACE-BASED WILDLIFE TRACKING TECHNOLOGY TO BUILD AN INTEGRATED DATASET OF REGIONAL-SCALE AND NEAR-CONTINUOUS DESCRIPTIONS OF PASSERINE (AMERICAN ROBINS), RAPTOR (GOLDEN EAGLES), UNGULATE (CARIBOU, MOOSE), AND PREDATOR (WOLF AND BROWN BEAR) LOCATIONS WITH BOTH STATIC AND DYNAMIC REMOTE SENSING PRODUCTS AND OTHER REGIONAL-SCALE GEOSPATIAL DATASETS (OBJ.1). WE WILL USE THIS DATA TO BUILD EMPIRICALLY BASED STATISTICAL MOVEMENT AND HABITAT SELECTION MODELS FOR MULTIPLE GROUPS OF ANIMALS ACROSS THE ABOVE STUDY DOMAIN (OBJ.2). THE GEOSPATIAL TOOLS AND PRODUCTS WILL BE MADE ACCESSIBLE TO NATURAL RESOURCE AGENCIES, WILDLIFE MANAGERS, FIRST NATIONS, ALASKAN NATIVES, AND OTHER STAKEHOLDERS TO AID THEM IN MANAGEMENT AND ADAPTATION DECISIONS (OBJ.3). FURTHER, OUR NOVEL MODELS AND GEOSPATIAL TOOLS WILL BE AVAILABLE FOR PHASE 2 AND 3 ABOVE STUDIES IN WHICH FUTURE PROJECTIONS OF ANIMAL MOVEMENT AND HABITAT SELECTION WILL BE MADE, AND SUBSEQUENTLY USED TO DETERMINE SOCIETAL CONSEQUENCES AND DEVELOP DECISION SUPPORT PRODUCTS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AW71A  
Monday, June 27, 2016
$10,000.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THE PAST QUARTER CENTURY HAS WITNESSED AN EXPLOSIVE INCREASE IN THE USE OF MICROBES TO STUDY EVOLUTION IN THE LAB. EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIAL EVOLUTION IS A VIBRANT FIELD, WHICH OVER THE LAST DECADE HAS ASSIMILATED, AND IN MANY CASES PIONEERED, GENOMIC TOOLS FOR HIGH-THROUGHPUT ANALYSIS OF CLONES AND POPULATIONS. EME IS BROADLY INTEGRATIVE, AS CONNECTING GENOTYPE TO FITNESS REQUIRES DETAILED UNDERSTANDING OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY. INDEED, SOME OF THE MOST EXCITING WORK IN THIS BURGEONING FIELD IS BEING UNDERTAKEN BY A NEW GENERATION OF SYSTEMS BIOLOGISTS, WHOSE GOAL IS TO DO THE HARD WORK OF CONNECTING GENOTYPE TO PHENOTYPE BY CAREFULLY READING OUT AND INTERPRETING -OMICS DATA UNDER A VARIETY OF EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS. AT PRESENT THERE ARE FEW VENUES WHERE EME RESEARCHERS CAN CONVENE AS A GROUP. ASM EME1 WAS A RESOUNDING SUCCESS, BRINGING TOGETHER 160 PARTICIPANTS FROM 24 NATIONS. EXPECTED ATTENDANCE AT ASM EME2. THE 2ND ASM SMALL CONFERENCE ON EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIAL EVOLUTION WILL ATTRACT A DIVERSE AUDIENCE, INCLUDING: (1) INDIVIDUALS WHO USE MICROBES AS TOOLS TO GAIN INSIGHT INTO THE STRUCTURE AND DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF METABOLIC NETWORKS; (2) RESEARCHERS WHO USE MICROBES TO STUDY POPULATION GENETIC DYNAMICS; (3) INVESTIGATORS WHO USE EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION AS A TOOL TO UNDERSTAND THE MOLECULAR MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ADAPTATION, INCLUDING THE METABOLIC AND GENOMIC CONSTRAINTS ON THE ADAPTIVE PROCESS; (4) BIOLOGISTS WHO USE MICROBES TO GAIN MECHANISTIC UNDERSTANDING OF THE EVOLUTION OF SEX, COOPERATION AND SENESCENCE, HOW SPECIES ARISE AND BECOME EXTINCT, AND HOW MULTICELLULARITY ARISES AND BECOMES FIXED; (5) INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGISTS WHO USE EVOLUTIONARY PRINCIPLES TO DEVELOP AND OPTIMIZE ORGANISMS THAT HAVE NOVEL METABOLIC CAPABILITIES AND UNUSUAL PHYSIOLOGICAL TOLERANCES; (6) MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGISTS WHO USE EVOLUTIONARY PRINCIPLES AND EXPERIMENTS TO BETTER UNDERSTAND THE EVOLUTION OF VIRULENCE AND DRUG RESISTANCE AS WELL AS PATTERNS OF DISEASE DYNAMICS, INCLUDING HOST-PATHOGEN COEVOLUTION; (7) THEORETICAL BIOLOGISTS, ESPECIALLY (A) SYSTEMS BIOLOGISTS WHO MODEL METABOLIC NETWORKS, (B) RESEARCHERS WHO USE DIGITAL ORGANISMS TO TEST HYPOTHESES AND TO REFINE THE DESIGN OF LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS USING MICROBIAL SPECIES. RELEVANCE TO THE SCIENCE MISSION DIRECTORATE. SMD ACKNOWLEDGES THE NEED TO BRING TOGETHER MEMBERS OF SCIENTIFIC COMMUNITIES RELEVANT TO NASA IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF INVESTIGATORS THROUGH THE OPEN EXCHANGE OF IDEAS AS WELL AS THE NEED TO EXPOSE INVESTIGATORS TO NEW SUBJECT AREAS. THE INAUGURAL MEETING BROUGHT TOGETHER MANY MEMBERS OF THE TEAM WHO ARE NOW CO-IS OF THE MONTANA CAN-7 NAI NODE, AS WELL AS INVESTIGATORS WHO HAVE SINCE COMPETED SUCCESSFULLY FOR EXO, SIMONS AND TEMPLETON GRANTS RELATED TO THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH. EXOBIOLOGY&EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY SAW A 24% INCREASE IN 2015 PROPOSALS, A STATISTIC THAT MAY BE IN PART ATTRIBUTED TO THE HIGHER VISIBILITY OF NASA AS A FUNDING SOURCE FOR EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION RESEARCH. RELEVANCE TO THE NASA ASTROBIOLOGY STRATEGIC PLAN. THE GOAL OF EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION IS TO CARRY OUT REAL-TIME STUDIES THAT ILLUMINATE ANCIENT AND ONGOING PROCESSES RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE ON EARTH. EVERYONE IN EME SEEKS TO RELIVE THE HISTORY OF LIFE IN THE LAB. IN SO DOING, THEY WORK TOWARD GOALS SET FORTH IN THE ASTROBIOLOGY STRATEGIC PLAN, SPECIFICALLY THOSE UNDER THEME #3: EARLY LIFE AND INCREASING COMPLEXITY AND THEME #4: CO-EVOLUTION OF LIFE AND THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT. IT WOULD BE FAIR TO SAY THAT EVERYONE ATTENDING ASM EME2 IS MOTIVATED BY ASTROBIOLOGYS OVERARCHING QUESTION, HOW DOES LIFE BEGIN AND EVOLVE?
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX16AL69G  
Wednesday, June 15, 2016
$18,563.00
1400: Department of the Interior
140G03: OFFICE OF ACQUISITON GRANTS

C: DELIVERY ORDER
IGF::OT::IGF, EDNA ANALYSIS; 0040280222
B516: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- ANIMAL/FISHERIES

  ING16PD00709     ING15PC00055  
Wednesday, June 15, 2016
$150,000.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THIS INVESTIGATION FOCUSES ON TOPIC TWO OF THE SOLICITATION REGARDING OTHER HYDROLOGICAL SECTORS. WE WILL CLARIFY THE ROLE OF ROOT ZONE SOIL MOISTURE AND LANDSCAPE FREEZE-THAW STATUS AS ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS TO TERRESTRIAL WATER MOBILITY AND SUPPLY OF PLANT-AVAILABLE MOISTURE UNDERPINNING VEGETATION ACTIVITY AND PRODUCTIVITY. VEGETATION GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION (GPP) IS THE PRINCIPAL MECHANISM FOR TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEM UPTAKE AND STORAGE OF ATMOSPHERIC CO2, AND IS A MAJOR FACTOR DETERMINING BIOSPHERE-ATMOSPHERE CARBON INTERACTIONS AND CLIMATE FEEDBACKS. HOWEVER, WHILE GPP IS A PRIMARY OUTPUT FROM GLOBAL BIOGEOCHEMISTRY MODELS AND SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN MODEL LAND PRODUCTS, THERE IS CURRENTLY LARGE UNCERTAINTY AMONG MODEL BASED GPP PREDICTIONS. THIS AMBIGUITY IS A MAJOR ERROR SOURCE FOR HIGHER LEVEL PREDICTIONS OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON FLUXES AND PROPAGATES TO LARGE UNCERTAINTY IN GLOBAL MODEL PREDICTIONS REGARDING THE NATURE AND RELATIVE STABILITY OF THE TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINK, AND POTENTIAL BIOSPHERE RESPONSE AND ASSOCIATED CLIMATE FEEDBACKS TO GLOBAL WARMING. MUCH OF THIS UNCERTAINTY REFLECTS A LACK OF EXPLICIT REPRESENTATION OF MOISTURE CONSTRAINTS TO PRODUCTIVITY AND CANOPY GAS EXCHANGE. WE WILL REDUCE THIS UNCERTAINTY AND IMPROVE PROCESS LEVEL UNDERSTANDING OF HYDROLOGY AND CARBON CYCLE LINKAGES BY FULFILLING THE FOLLOWING SCIENCE OBJECTIVES: 1) IMPROVE THE REPRESENTATION AND UNDERSTANDING OF PLANT AVAILABLE MOISTURE CONSTRAINTS TO VEGETATION ACTIVITY AND GPP USING A SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN MODEL SIMULATION FRAMEWORK; 2) APPLY THE ENHANCED MODEL FRAMEWORK TO QUANTIFY THE INTEGRATED EFFECTS OF EARLIER AND LONGER NON-FROZEN SEASONS AND ASSOCIATED CHANGES IN LAND SURFACE WATER MOBILITY AND ROOT ZONE SOIL MOISTURE ON GPP OVER NORTH AMERICA; 3) DOCUMENT THE REGIONAL PRODUCTIVITY RESPONSE AND RECOVERY TO INTENSIFYING DROUGHT DISTURBANCE. WE WILL APPLY AND REFINE A SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN LIGHT USE EFFICIENCY (LUE) MODEL SIMILAR TO THE LEVEL 4 CARBON (L4_C) MODEL FRAMEWORK BEING IMPLEMENTED UNDER THE NASA SMAP (SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE) MISSION TO CLARIFY THE ROLE OF ROOT ZONE SOIL MOISTURE AND LANDSCAPE FREEZE-THAW (FT) DYNAMICS IN REGULATING GPP. MODEL SIMULATIONS WILL BE CONDUCTED USING NEW NASA REMOTE SENSING DATA RECORDS FOR FT AND SOIL MOISTURE AS PRIMARY INPUTS AND CONSTRAINTS TO ESTIMATED GPP AND THE CONVERSION OF CANOPY ABSORBED PHOTOSYNTHETICALLY ACTIVE SOLAR RADIATION TO VEGETATION BIOMASS. THESE DATA WILL BE USED WITH OTHER ANCILLARY INPUTS WITHIN THE LUE MODEL TO CLARIFY REGIONAL PATTERNS AND VARIABILITY IN GPP AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS. THE LUE ALGORITHM WILL BE REFINED, CALIBRATED AND VALIDATED USING INDEPENDENT GPP OBSERVATIONS FROM REGIONAL TOWER (AMERIFLUX) EDDY COVARIANCE CO2 FLUX MEASUREMENT NETWORKS, AND VERIFIED AGAINST OTHER GPP PRODUCTS DEVELOPED UNDER NASA MODIS, AIRMOSS AND SMAP MISSIONS; MODEL PERFORMANCE AND GPP UNCERTAINTY WILL BE QUANTIFIED USING A FORWARD MODEL SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS, WHILE ACCOUNTING FOR POTENTIAL ERROR CONTRIBUTIONS FROM MODEL INPUTS, ALGORITHM ASSUMPTIONS AND LAND COVER HETEROGENEITY. THIS STUDY WILL CLARIFY LINKAGES BETWEEN TERRESTRIAL HYDROLOGY AND CARBON CYCLE PROCESSES. WE WILL IMPROVE PROCESS UNDERSTANDING AND QUANTIFICATION OF THE ROLES AND RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN WATER SUPPLY AND FROZEN SEASON CONSTRAINTS ON VEGETATION GROWING SEASONS, AND THE NET EFFECT OF RECENT ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES TO GPP AND POTENTIAL CARBON SINK STRENGTH OVER NORTH AMERICA. WE WILL CONTRIBUTE TO MODEL SENSITIVITY AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS, AND VALIDATION ACTIVITIES THAT INFORM SCIENCE RESEARCH APPLICATIONS AND PRODUCT CALIBRATION, VALIDATION AND REFINEMENT FOR THE NASA SMAP MISSION. THIS STUDY WILL ALSO CONTRIBUTE TO THP OBJECTIVES TO IMPROVE PREDICTIVE UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLE OF WATER IN LAND-ATMOSPHERE INTERACTIONS, AND CLARIFY THE ROLE OF ROOT ZONE SOIL MOISTURE VARIABILITY AND FROZEN SEASON CONSTRAINTS ON PLANT-AVAILABLE WATER SUPPLY, VEGETATION ACTIVITY AND PRODUCTIVITY.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AB59G  
Wednesday, June 15, 2016
$152,218.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN MODEL ASSESSMENT OF LANDSCAPE VARIABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS ON THE ARCTIC-BOREAL CARBON BUDGET WE WILL APPLY A SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN CARBON MODEL FRAMEWORK TO IMPROVE UNDERSTANDING AND QUANTIFICATION OF CARBON (CO2 AND CH4) FLUXES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS ON THE NET ECOSYSTEM CARBON BUDGET (NECB) OVER THE ABOVE DOMAIN. WE WILL DEVELOP A FOUNDATIONAL DATABASE TO EXPLORE AND QUANTIFY LINKS BETWEEN CHANGING SURFACE CONDITIONS, INCLUDING FREEZE-THAW (FT) REGIMES, SOIL MOISTURE AND OPEN WATER INUNDATION, AND ARCTIC-BOREAL CARBON FLUXES. THESE DATA WILL LINK LOCAL TOWER SITE OBSERVATIONS WITH CARVE AIRBORNE ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND CH4 MEASUREMENTS AND OTHER LAND PARAMETERS DERIVED FROM SATELLITE OPTICAL AND MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING TO CLARIFY SURFACE MOISTURE AND THERMAL CONSTRAINTS TO VEGETATION GROWTH AND SOIL CARBON CYCLING. WE WILL APPLY THESE DATA WITHIN A TERRESTRIAL CARBON FLUX (TCF) MODEL TO QUANTIFY THE NECB, COMPONENT CARBON FLUXES AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS. MODEL SENSITIVITY STUDIES WILL BE CONDUCTED AT SITE, LOCAL AND REGIONAL SCALES IN CONTEXT WITH REMOTE SENSING OBSERVATIONS TO DOCUMENT MODEL UNCERTAINTIES AND SCALING PROPERTIES OF CRITICAL DRIVERS. THESE RESULTS WILL BE USED TO IMPROVE MODEL REPRESENTATIONS OF SUB-GRID SCALE PROCESSES AFFECTING CARBON FLUX ESTIMATES, WHILE INCORPORATING REGIONAL MODEL ENHANCEMENTS REPRESENTING WILDFIRE DISTURBANCE RECOVERY AND WETLAND CH4 EMISSIONS. RESULTS WILL INCLUDE VERIFIED NECB MAPS, COMPONENT CARBON FLUXES AND ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS WITH DAILY TEMPORAL FIDELITY, 1-KM SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND 14+ YEAR (2003-2016) DATA RECORDS. THIS STUDY ADDRESSES SEVERAL ABOVE SCIENCE QUESTIONS, INCLUDING: "HOW ARE THE MAGNITUDES, FATES, AND LAND-ATMOSPHERE EXCHANGES OF CARBON POOLS RESPONDING TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, AND WHAT ARE THE BIOGEOCHEMICAL MECHANISMS DRIVING THESE CHANGES?" WE ALSO ADDRESS ABOVE OBJECTIVES FOR "ELUCIDATING HOW CLIMATE CHANGE AND DISTURBANCES INTERACT AND ALTER LAND-ATMOSPHERE CARBON EXCHANGE." THIS STUDY MEETS PHASE I PRIORITIES FOR DEVELOPING "A SET OF READILY ACCESSIBLE, VALIDATED DATA PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM MULTIPLE SENSORS THAT CAN BE INTEGRATED TO FORM THE BASIS FOR INVESTIGATIONS OF ECOSYSTEM AND SOCIETAL RESPONSE OVER THE ENTIRE STUDY DOMAIN." WE WILL ALSO CONTRIBUTE MODEL SENSITIVITY AND VALIDATION ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING ABOVE PHASE II AND III ACTIVITIES, WITH DIRECT APPLICATIONS TO NASA SMAP AND CARVE MISSIONS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AT74A  
Friday, June 10, 2016
$165,061.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SMAP SCIENCE TEAM. I PROPOSE TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE SMAP SCIENCE TEAM (ST) IN SUPPORTING CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE AND RELATED APPLICATIONS ENABLED BY NEW SMAP FREEZE/THAW (FT) AND SOIL MOISTURE OBSERVATIONS. PROPOSED UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA (UMT) CONTRIBUTIONS TO PRE- AND POST-LAUNCH ST ACTIVITIES INCLUDE CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION (CAL/VAL) SUPPORT FOR THE SMAP LEVEL 4 CARBON (L4_C) PRODUCT AS DOCUMENTED IN THE SMAP CAL/VAL PLAN AND L4_C ALGORITHM THEORETICAL BASIS DOCUMENT (ATBD); THESE ACTIVITIES WILL AUGMENT UMT PRODUCT MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES ALREADY SUPPORTED BY THE MISSION. UMT ST CONTRIBUTIONS AND DELIVERABLES WILL INCLUDE L4_C PRODUCT ASSESSMENTS AT CORE AND SECONDARY TOWER VALIDATION SITES TO QUANTIFY PRODUCT ACCURACY AGAINST INDEPENDENT TOWER EDDY COVARIANCE MEASUREMENT BASED ESTIMATES OF NET ECOSYSTEM CO2 EXCHANGE (NEE), COMPONENT CARBON FLUXES (GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND ECOSYSTEM RESPIRATION) AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS, INCLUDING FT AND SOIL MOISTURE VARIABILITY. WE WILL ENHANCE THE L4_C CAL/VAL ACTIVITIES TO INCLUDE ADDITIONAL ALGORITHM AND PRODUCT COMPARISONS AGAINST SYNERGISTIC TOWER OBSERVATIONS AND STAND TO REGIONAL SCALE CARBON PRODUCTS PRODUCED UNDER THE NASA AIRMOSS MISSION. WE WILL ALSO CONDUCT OFFLINE FORWARD MODEL SIMULATIONS AND SENSITIVITY STUDIES USING THE UMT L4_C ALGORITHM SIMULATOR TO EVALUATE ALGORITHM OPTIONS AND DERIVE DETAILED PRODUCT ERROR BUDGETS AND UNCERTAINTY MAPS DOCUMENTING GLOBAL ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCT QUALITY. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL PROVIDE ROBUST VALIDATION AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT, AND POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENT OF THE L4_C PRODUCT TO ACHIEVE AND DEMONSTRATE PRODUCT SUCCESS WITHIN THE POST-LAUNCH CAL/VAL PERIOD. I WILL PROMOTE EARLY SCIENCE APPLICATION USE OF THE L4_C PRODUCT AS A LAND SURFACE PRIOR FOR ATMOSPHERIC CO2 MODEL INVERSION STUDIES. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL INVOLVE DEMONSTRATING USE OF THE L4_C PRODUCT WITHIN THE NOAA ESRL CARBONTRACKER (CT) AND SHOWING THE LINK BETWEEN TOP-DOWN ATMOSPHERE CARBON SOURCE/SINK ACTIVITY, AND BOTTOM-UP SMAP DERIVED NET ECOSYSTEM CO2 EXCHANGE AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL PROVIDE A MEANS FOR LINKING SMAP L4_C NEE OUTPUTS AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS WITH SYNERGISTIC CO2 OBSERVATIONS FROM SPARSE GLOBAL MONITORING NETWORKS (E.G. NOAA CMDL FLASK SITES) AND UPCOMING NASA MISSIONS, INCLUDING THE ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY (OCO-2). THESE ST CONTRIBUTIONS DIRECTLY ADDRESS CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE OBJECTIVES AS PUT FORTH IN THE DECADAL SURVEY, INCLUDING: 1) LINKING LANDSCAPE FT AND SOIL MOISTURE VARIABILITY TO CARBON EXCHANGE OVER NORTHERN AND GLOBAL LAND AREAS; 2) QUANTIFYING THE NET CARBON FLUX IN BOREAL LANDSCAPES, AND 3) REDUCING UNCERTAINTIES ABOUT THE PURPORTED MISSING SINK ON LAND FOR ATMOSPHERIC CO2.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AI50G  
Friday, June 10, 2016
$245,324.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
INTELLECTUAL MERIT THE ORIGIN AND FATE OF GENETIC DIVERSITY ARE CENTRAL ORGANIZING THEMES IN BIOLOGY, CRUCIAL TO UNDERSTANDING HOW LIFE AROSE AND EVOLVED ON EARTH, AND HOW LIFE MIGHT ARISE AND EVOLVE ON OTHER WORLDS. BECAUSE ALL LIFE FORMS ENCOUNTER SEVERELY ADVERSE CONDITIONS, IT IS NOT SURPRISING THAT SELECTION HAS FAVORED THE EVOLUTION OF MECHANISMS THAT CAN INCREASE POPULATION VARIATION BY ADJUSTING MUTATION RATE. SUCH INNOVATIONS COMPLICATE THE DYNAMIC INTERPLAY OF GENETIC VARIATION, SELECTION, AND MUTATION, WHICH TOGETHER DETERMINE THE TEMPO AND TRAJECTORY OF ADAPTATION AND THE LIKELIHOOD THAT NEW SPECIES ARISE. STRESS-RELATED MUTATIONS BOTH THOSE THAT RESULT IN LOCAL CHANGES IN DNA SEQUENCE AND THOSE THAT CAUSE LARGE-SCALE CHANGES IN GENOME ARCHITECTURE ARE NOW KNOWN TO PLAY DECISIVE ROLES IN THE EMERGENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND THE PROGRESSION OF CANCER. HERE, WE SEEK TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER THEY ALSO PLAY A ROLE IN SPECIATION ITSELF.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AK38G  
Thursday, June 9, 2016
$142,675.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
PROVIDING CONTINUITY FOR THE MODIS LAND GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION, NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION DATASETS MY TEAM HAS NOW PRODUCED THE ALGORITHMS FOR A 13 YEAR RECORD OF GLOBAL 8-DAY GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION, ANNUAL NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND 8-DAY EVAPOTRANSPIRATION FROM TERRA MODIS AND AQUA MODIS. THESE GLOBAL DATASETS ARE UNIQUE, CURRENTLY NO ONE ELSE IS REGULARLY PRODUCING THESE DATA FROM ANY SENSOR. USES OF THESE DATA EXTEND FROM CARBON CYCLE SOURCE/SINK ANALYSIS, CARBON CREDIT CALCULATIONS, AGRICULTURAL GROWTH AND YIELD, DROUGHT MONITORING, WATER MANAGEMENT, GCM PARAMETERIZATION AND TESTING, BIOENERGY CAPACITIES, AND EVEN PLANETARY BOUNDARY THEORY. BECAUSE OF THIS HERITAGE AND WIDE USE, A FIRST PRIORITY MUST BE CONTINUITY OF THESE DATASETS AT THE HIGHEST PRECISION POSSIBLE. THIS INCLUDES ADJUSTING THESE ALGORITHMS TO CHANGES IN THE INPUT DATASTREAMS, SUCH AS LANDCOVER AND LEAF AREA INDEX, AND SENSOR DEGRADATION CORRECTIONS. IT ALSO INCLUDES RECOMPUTES WHEN NEW VERSIONS OF THE GLOBAL DAILY SURFACE METEOROLOGY FROM GEOS-5 ARE INTRODUCED. THE SECOND PRIORITY IS TO EXPLORE IMPROVEMENTS TO THE GPP AND NPP ALGORITHMS. THE GREATEST POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVEMENT WILL BE DEFINING MORE BIOME TYPES AND ALLOWING A MORE SOPHISTICATED CALCULATION OF THE CONVERSION EFFICIENCY FROM RADIANT ENERGY TO BIOMASS. NEW DATA FROM GLOBAL FLUXNET STATIONS AND OTHER SOURCES NOW ALLOWS A MUCH MORE BIOME SPECIFIC, REGIONALLY CALIBRATED AND EVEN SEASONALLY ADJUSTED .
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AI69G  
Tuesday, May 10, 2016
$51,685.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80ARC0: NASA AMES RESEARCH CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
FPDS BASE DESCRIPTION, MULTIPLE YEAR AWARD AND INCREMENTAL FUNDING FOR YEARS ONE TO FIVE. THIS PROPOSAL IS ENTITLED, "RELIVING THE PAST: EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION OF MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE HISTORY OF LIFE." THIS IS AWARDED IN RESPONSE TO COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NOTICE (CAN) NO. NNH13ZDA017C, NASA ASTROBIOLOGY INSTITUTE, CYCLE SEVEN (7). THE PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR IS DR. RAPHAEL F. ROSENZWEIG WITH UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA (UMT). PROJECT SUMMARY: TO ILLUMINATE THE LAWS THAT PRODUCE DARWIN'S "TANGLED BANK" REMAINS ONE OF BIOLOGY'S GRAND CHALLENGES, ONE THAT REQUIRES UNDERSTANDING HOW DIFFERENCES AMOUNT FORMS ARE SELECTED FOR AND HOW INTERDEPENDENCE AMOUNT FORMS IS ENFORCED. IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS, MEETING THIS CHALLENGE IS COMPLICATED BY THE FACT THAT SELECTION PRESSURES OFTEN VARY WIDELY OVER SPACE AND THROUGH TIME. LABORATORY EVOLUTION EXPERIMENTS WITH MICROBIAL POPULATION OFFER AN ATTRACTIVE ALTERNATIVE BY WHICH TO STUDY, UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS, BOTH THE DYNAMIC INTERPLAY BETWEEN GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE AND THE INTERACTIONS AMONG PHENOTYPES IN SIMPLE COMMUNITIES. INDEED, BECAUSE THE PRINCIPAL ACTORS IN THE FIRST 2.5 BILLION YEARS OF LIFE'S DRAMA WERE EXCLUSIVELY MICROBES, WE ARE OBLIGATED TO USE THESE FORMS TO UNLOCK THE SECRETS OF LIFE'S TRANSITIONS FROM SIMPLE AUTOCATALYTIC UNITS TO SELF-ORGANIZING, SELF-REPLICATING, ENERGY TRANSDUCTION SYSTEMS THAT RANGE IN COMPLEXITY FROM SINGLE CELLS TO ECOSYSTEMS. OUR TEAM IS RESPONDING TO NAI CAN 7 WITH A MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROPOSAL TO ADDRESS: WHAT FORCES BRING ABOUT MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE EVOLUTION OF BIO-COMPLEXITY? OUR PROGRAM AIMS TO MEET THE GRANT CHALLENGE OF ILLUMINATING AND INTERPRETING THE LAWS THAT PRODUCE THE "TANGLED BANK" SO THAT WE MAY BETTER UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE THE GRANDEUR IN THE VIEW OF LIFE....THAT, WHILST THIS PLANET HAS GONE CYCLING ON ACCORDING TO THE FIXED LAW OF GRAVITY, FROM SO SIMPLE A BEGINNING ENDLESS FORMS MOST BEAUTIFUL AND MOST WONDERFUL HAVE BEEN, AND ARE BEING, EVOLVED. THE LAWS ORIGINAL INFERRED BY DARWIN WERE THOSE THAT GIVE RISE TO NATURAL SELECTION, WHICH IS A CONSEQUENCE OF NATURAL VARIATION, INHERITANCE OF VARIATION, AND THE DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVORSHIP OF VARIANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR FITNESS. 150 YEAR LATER WE NOW RECOGNIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF OTHER FACTORS, IN PARTICULAR CHANGE, WHETHER IN THE FORM OF GENETIC DRIFT OR HISTORICAL CONTINGENCY. OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE MECHANISM OF INHERITANCE CONTINUES TO BE REFINED BY NEW INSIGHTS INTO WHAT CONSTITUTES A GENE, HOW GENES INTERACT AND HOW MUTATION RATE ITSELF IS SUBJECT TO NATURAL SELECTION. OUR ASTROBIOLOGY PROJECT IS ORGANIZED AROUND A SET OF QUESTIONS RELATED TO MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE HISTORY OF LIFE, WHEN INDEPENDENTLY REPLICATING ENTITIES COMBINE IN TO LARGER, MORE COMPLEX WHOLES: (I) HOW DO ENZYMES AND METABOLIC NETWORKS EVOLVE?, (II) HOW DID THE EUKARYOTIC CELL, SPECIFICALLY THE CELL THAT CONTAINED A MITOCHONDRION, COME TO BE?, (III) HOW DO SYMBIOSES ARISE?, (IV) HOW DOES MULTICELLULARITY EVOLVE?, AND (V) HOW DO PLEIOTROPY, EPISTASIS AND MUTATION RATE CONSTRAIN THE EVOLUTION OF NOVEL TRAITS? A UNIFYING THEM UNDERLYING THESE QUESTIONS IS: HOW DO COOPERATIVE VS. COMPETITIVE INTERACTIONS PLAY OUT IN DRIVING MAJOR TRANSITIONS? SEEKING THE ANSWERS TO THESE QUESTIONS FALLS SQUARELY WITHIN ASTROBIOLOGY, WHICH IS THE STUDY OF THE ORIGINS, EVOLUTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND FUTURE OF LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE, AND HELPS TO ADDRESS THE FIRST OF OUR DISCIPLINE'S THREE PRINCIPAL QUESTIONS: HOW DOES LIFE BEGIN AND EVOLVE?
AR11: R&D- SPACE: AERONAUTICS/SPACE TECHNOLOGY (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNA15BB04A     NNH13ZDA017C  
Monday, May 9, 2016
($1.46)
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
THE ORIGIN AND FATE OF GENETIC DIVERSITY ARE CENTRAL ORGANIZING THEMES IN BIOLOGY, CRUCIAL TO THE UNDERSTANDING OF HOW LIFE AROSE AND EVOLVED ON EARTH, AND HOW LIFE MIGHT ARISE AND EVOLVE ON OTHER WORLDS. ESPECIALLY RELEVANT IS HOW GENETIC DIVERSITY ORIGINATES AND IS MOLDED IN THE ABSENCE OF SEXUAL RECOMBINATION AND IN THE PRESENCE OF ONE OR FEW LIMITING RESOURCES. CLASSICAL, COMPETITION-BASED MODELS OF EVOLUTION UNDER THESE TWO CONDITIONS LEAD TO THE EXPECTATION THAT POPULATION GENETIC DIVERSITY SHOULD BE LIMITED IN SCOPE AND TRANSIENT IN NATURE, AS SELECTION FAVORS SUCCESSIVELY FITTER CLONES. HOWEVER, EMPIRICAL AND THEORETICAL EVIDENCE NOW SUGGESTS THAT EVEN UNDER THESE SIMPLE CONDITIONS, ASEXUAL POPULATIONS CAN BECOME UNEXPECTEDLY DIVERSE, OWING EITHER TO CLONAL INTERFERENCE, WHERE BENEFICIAL MUTATIONS ARISE IN MULTIPLE COMPETING LINEAGES OR TO CLONAL REINFORCEMENT, WHERE MUTATIONS THAT ARISE IN MULTIPLE LINEAGES RESULT IN COOPERATIVE RESOURCE USE THROUGH FAVORABLE BIOCHEMICAL INTERACTIONS. HERE WE PROPOSE TO INVESTIGATE GENETIC AND ECOLOGICAL FACTORS THAT FAVOR ONE OR ANOTHER OF THESE THREE MECHANISMS. WE WILL USE EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION IN ESCHERICHIA COLI COUPLED WITH NEXT-GENERATION SEQUENCING TO INVESTIGATE HOW ANCESTRAL GENOTYPE AND LIMITING RESOURCE TYPE INFLUENCE THE OUTCOME OF EVOLUTION IN ASEXUAL POPULATIONS. WE WILL PURSUE THREE SPECIFIC AIMS: FIRST, WE WILL EVOLVE FOR 1000 GENERATIONS REPLICATE BACTERIAL POPULATIONS FOUNDED BY ONE OF THREE GENOTYPES AND CULTURED EITHER ON A COMPLEX RESOURCE, GLUCOSE, OR ON A SIMPLE RESOURCE, ACETATE. EACH FOUNDER HAS BEEN SEQUENCED AND ONE IS KNOWN TO EVOLVE MUTUALISTS ON GLUCOSE. SECOND, WE WILL COMPLETELY SEQUENCE EACH EXPERIMENTAL POPULATION AT 200-GENERATION INTERVALS TO DISCOVER THE SPECTRUM OF MUTATIONS ARISING FROM THESE FOUNDERS, AS WELL AS DYNAMIC CHANGES IN THEIR ALLELE FREQUENCIES WITHIN EACH POPULATION. THIRD, INFORMED BY COMPREHENSIVE KNOWLEDGE OF POPULATION GENOMES WE WILL INVESTIGATE THE UNDERLYING CAUSES, OVERALL EFFICIENCY AND ECOLOGICAL RESILIENCE OF NEWLY-EVOLVED BIOLOGICAL COMPLEXITY. WE WILL DETERMINE EXPERIMENTALLY WHETHER THE GENETIC DIVERSITY WE DISCOVER HAS ARISEN VIA CLONAL SUCCESSION, CLONAL INTERFERENCE, OR CLONAL REINFORCEMENT (MUTUALISM), AND INVESTIGATE WHICH EVOLUTIONARY MECHANISM RESULTS IN GREATEST RESOURCE-USE EFFICIENCY. THEN, WE WILL TEST THE RELATIVE STABILITY OF POLYMORPHIC POPULATIONS THAT ARISE BY COMPETITION VS. COOPERATION WHEN EACH IS PERTURBED PHYSICALLY BY INCREASING TEMPERATURE OR BIOLOGICALLY BY PROMOTING INVASION OF A HIGHLY FIT CLONE FROM AN INDEPENDENTLY-EVOLVED POPULATION. OUR PROJECT IS DRIVEN BY NEW DATA, MUCH OF IT PUBLISHED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF ASTROBIOLOGY NNX07AJ28G. THESE DATA HAVE ENABLED US TO ELUCIDATE MECHANISMS THAT PRODUCE GENETIC COMPLEXITY IN ASEXUAL POPULATIONS BY COMPETITIVE OR COOPERATIVE CLONAL INTERACTIONS. OUR NEW FINDINGS MAKE CLEAR THAT WE ARE POISED TO BREAK NEW GROUND IN ANSWERING BASIC QUESTIONS SUCH AS: WHAT CAUSES MUTUALISM TO EVOLVE? HOW CLONAL IS A "CLONAL POPULATION?" AND DOES COOPERATION MAKE EVOLVING POPULATIONS MORE STABLE AND PRODUCTIVE THAN COMPETITION? RELEVANCE TO THE NASA MISSION THIS EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM ADDRESSES THE FIRST OF THE THREE BASIC QUESTIONS ARTICULATED IN THE CURRENT NASA ASTROBIOLOGY ROADMAP, NAMELY "HOW DOES LIFE BEGIN AND EVOLVE?"
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX12AD87G  
Thursday, May 5, 2016
($1,457.23)
1400: Department of the Interior
140F03: US FISH AND WILDLIFE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
IGF::OT::IGF SERVICE NON-PERSONAL: UNIV OF MT-COMMUNICATION WORKSHOP COSTS THE PURPOSE OF THIS MODIFICATION IS TO DE-OBLIGATE AND CLOSE OUT CONTRACT ONLY.
R499: SUPPORT- PROFESSIONAL: OTHER

  INF15PX00535  
Thursday, May 5, 2016
$14,228.54
1100: Executive Office of the President
1145PC: PEACE CORPS OACM

B: PURCHASE ORDER
MONTANA RECRUITER CONTRACT IGF::OT::IGF
U009: EDUCATION/TRAINING- GENERAL

  PC158034     PC15Q019  
Monday, May 2, 2016
($0.09)
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
AS DOCUMENTED IN THE SEAC4RS WHITE PAPER (HTTP://WWW.ESPO.NASA.GOV/PUB/SEAC4RS-OVERVIEW-21OCT2010.PDF), MAINLAND AND INSULAR SE ASIA CONSTITUTE A REGION OF EXTREME COMPLEXITY AND CONTRASTS; WHERE SOME OF THE CLEANEST AIR, AND SOME OF THE MOST POLLUTED AIR, ON EARTH IS FOUND. THIS REGION IS ALSO WHERE A LARGE FRACTION OF THE GLOBAL EXCHANGE BETWEEN THE TROPOSPHERE AND STRATOSPHERE MAY OCCUR, PARTLY DUE TO HIGH SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURES IN THE INDONESIAN THROUGHFLOW REGION LEADING TO INTENSE DEEP CONVECTION. THIS RAISES IMPORTANT QUESTIONS INCLUDING: 1) WHAT IS THE MAGNITUDE AND CHEMISTRY OF THE MYRIAD OF SOURCES IMPACTING THE BOUNDARY LAYER (BL) IN THIS REGION (URBAN, OPEN BURNING, COOKING FIRES, INDUSTRIAL BIOFUEL BURNING, BIOGENIC, SHIPPING, ETC)? 2) HOW DO THESE EMISSIONS MIX AND AGE AND GET ENTRAINED IN MOSTLY LOCALLY-GENERATED CONVECTIVE STORMS 3) TO WHAT EXTENT ARE FRESH OR AGED EMISSIONS SCAVENGED OR TRANSPORTED TO THE UT/LS BY DEEP CONVECTION? 4) HOW DOES CLOUD-PROCESSING CHEMICALLY AND PHYSICALLY CHANGE THOSE AIR MASSES THAT ARE TRANSPORTED FROM THE BL TO THE FT AND THE UT/LS 5) HOW WELL DO REMOTE SENSING PRODUCTS QUANTIFY THE PRODUCTION AND OUTFLOW OF POLLUTANTS THESE QUESTIONS OVERLAP WELL WITH MY RESEARCH CAREER. I STUDIED STRATOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AS A NOAA POSTDOCTORAL SCHOLAR AND SINCE THEN I HAVE FOCUSED ON UNIQUE, DETAILED MEASUREMENTS OF THE MANY, DIVERSE TYPES OF OPEN, DOMESTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL BIOMASS BURNING SOURCES IN AIRBORNE, GROUND-BASED, AND LABORATORY CAMPAIGNS THAT I HAVE EITHER ORGANIZED AND LED MYSELF (MOSTLY EMOCRATICALLY); OR SEAMLESSLY BLENDED INTO LARGER SCALE PROJECTS SUCH AS SAFARI 2000, LBA, OR MILAGRO. MY WORK HAS ALSO FEATURED SOME MEASUREMENTS OF BIOGENIC, SHIPPING, AND URBAN EMISSIONS AND THE DE-CONVOLUTION OF THESE SOURCES USING TRACERS. A KEY FEATURE OF MY AIRBORNE WORK HAS BEEN THE CAREFULLY-DESIGNED FLIGHT PLANS NECESSARY TO ENABLE TRULY RIGOROUS MEASUREMENTS OF CLOUD AND PHOTOCHEMICAL PROCESSING OF SMOKE. MUCH OF MY RESEARCH HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED IN THE TROPICS IN COLLABORATION WITH IN-COUNTRY SCIENTISTS AND IN AN ENVIRONMENT WITH EXTREMELY CHALLENGING BUREAUCRACIES, POLITICS, AND LOGISTICS. I PLAN TO PARTICIPATE IN 7-SEAS (SUPPORTED BY NSF FUNDING IN HAND) WITH GROUND-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF UNDER-SAMPLED BIOMASS BURNING SOURCES. IF MY SERVICES WERE DESIRED BY NASA, I WOULD BE HAPPY TO ASSIST WITH THE FLIGHT PLANNING AND DATA ANALYSIS FOR SEAC4RS, WHICH I SEE AS VERY COMPLEMENTARY TO MY PLANNED MEASUREMENTS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX12AC20G  
Wednesday, April 27, 2016
$77,000.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
LOW FIRST-IONIZATION-POTENTIAL (FIP) ELEMENTS EXPERIENCE RELATIVELY LITTLE FRACTIONATION IN ALL TYPES OF SOLAR WIND. BY CONTRAST, HIGH-FIP ELEMENTS ARE VARIABLY DEPLETED IN THE SOLAR WIND. THE DEPLETION APPEARS TO VARY OVER THE SOLAR CYCLE AND BY REGIME. IN ORDER TO CONNECT GENESIS MISSION-MEASURED ABUNDANCES BACK TO SOLAR ABUNDANCES, ESPECIALLY FOR THESE HIGH-FIP ELEMENTS, WE PROPOSE TO MEASURE THE ABUNDANCES OF C, N, AND O--THREE KEY HIGH-FIP ELEMENTS--IN THE DIFFERENT REGIME COLLECTORS TO UNDERSTAND THEIR BEHAVIOR IN THE DIFFERENT REGIMES. THIS HAS BEEN DONE FOR THE LIGHT NOBLE GASES, BUT C, N, AND O COVER A DIFFERENT REGION OF THE FIP PLOT, CLOSER TO THE LOW-FIP ELEMENTS BUT STILL CLEARLY FRACTIONATED RELATIVE TO THEM, BASED ON BULK WIND MEASUREMENTS.IN ADDITION, WE PROPOSE TO QUANTITATIVELY DETERMINE THE CHANGES IN FIP FRACTIONATION OVER THE COURSE OF THE SOLAR CYCLE. NEW RESULTS FROM THE ACE MISSION, JUST REPORTED LATE LAST YEAR, SHOW CLEAR NE/O FRACTIONATION CHANGES OVER THE COURSE OF THE CYCLE. GENESIS COLLECTED SOLAR WIND OVER THE SOLAR MAXIMUM AND THE FIRST PART OF THE DECLINING PHASE. BY COMPARING THE ACE DATA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THIS TIME PERIOD, WE CAN DETERMINE THE NEEDED CORRECTIONS TO OBTAIN THE SOLAR-CYCLE-AVERAGED COMPOSITIONS, HELPING US TO DETERMINE THE TRUE SOLAR COMPOSITIONS. THESE CORRECTIONS WILL EXTEND TO ISOTOPIC RATIOS FOR WHICH GENESIS PROVIDES A UNIQUE WINDOW INTO SOLAR COMPOSITIONS. BY PROVIDING DATA TO IMPROVE THE UNDERSTANDING OF ELEMENTAL FRACTIONATION, WE EXPECT IMPROVED SOLAR-WIND ACCELERATION THEORIES TO COMPREHENSIVELY PREDICT CORRECTIONS FOR ISOTOPIC FRACTIONATIONS AS WELL.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AG19G  
Saturday, April 23, 2016
$405,227.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
80NSSC: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
WE PROPOSE TO EXTEND AND ENHANCE THE EARTH SYSTEM DATA RECORD (ESDR) QUANTIFYING DAILY LANDSCAPE FREEZE/THAW (FT) STATE DYNAMICS OVER ALL GLOBAL VEGETATED LAND AREAS WHERE SEASONAL FROZEN TEMPERATURES ARE A SIGNIFICANT CONSTRAINT TO ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES, INCLUDING LAND-ATMOSPHERE CARBON, WATER, AND ENERGY FLUXES. THE FREEZE/THAW ESDR (FT-ESDR) CAPTURES DYNAMIC SEASONAL TO ANNUAL VARIABILITY, AND LARGE REGIONAL AND GLOBAL TRENDS IN FROZEN TEMPERATURE CONSTRAINTS TO LANDSCAPE WATER MOBILITY AND ECOSYSTEM PROCESSES IN RESPONSE TO RECENT CLIMATE CHANGE. THE PROPOSED FT-ESDR CONTINUITY AND ENHANCEMENTS WILL PROVIDE A CONTINUOUS GLOBAL DATA RECORD ENCOMPASSING ALMOST FOUR DECADES AND REPRESENTING ONE OF THE LONGEST SATELLITE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA RECORDS IN EXISTENCE, WHILE PROVIDING AN EXTENDED DOMAIN, FINER SPATIAL RESOLUTION FT RETRIEVALS FOR THE NORTHERN LATITUDES AND INCREASED PRODUCT SCIENCE UTILITY OVER THE EXISTING GLOBAL BASELINE. THE PROPOSED ACTIVITIES ARE THE LOGICAL EXTENSION OF AN EXPIRING MEASURES ACTIVITY AND BUILD ON A SUCCESSFUL FT-ESDR DEVELOPED BY MERGING OVERLAPPING SATELLITE PASSIVE MICROWAVE DAILY BRIGHTNESS TEMPERATURE (TB) RECORDS FROM THE SCANNING MULTICHANNEL MICROWAVE RADIOMETER (SMMR) AND SPECIAL SENSOR MICROWAVE IMAGER (SSM/I). THE FT-ESDR INCLUDES A CONSISTENT AND RELATIVELY PRECISE (>80% MEAN SPATIAL CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY) DAILY (AM AND PM) CLASSIFICATION OF THE PREDOMINANT FROZEN AND NON-FROZEN STATUS OF THE LANDSCAPE AT MODERATE (25-KM) RESOLUTION, WITH DETAILED METADATA. WE PROPOSE TO CONTINUE THE GLOBAL FT-ESDR BASELINE BY INCORPORATING ADDITIONAL CALIBRATED TB RECORDS FROM THE CONTINUING SSM/I SERIES, WHILE DOCUMENTING PRODUCT ACCURACY IN RELATION TO GLOBAL WMO STATION OBSERVATIONS AND SIMILAR FT RETRIEVALS FROM OTHER SATELLITE MICROWAVE RECORDS. THE PROPOSED ACTIVITIES WILL UTILIZE LESSONS LEARNED FROM OUR INITIAL FT-ESDR DEVELOPMENT AND ONGOING VALIDATION AND PRODUCT QUALITY ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES. WE WILL ALSO EVALUATE POTENTIAL ENHANCEMENTS TO THE FT-ESDR BASELINE, INCLUDING AN EXPANDED PRODUCT DOMAIN ENCOMPASSING THE LARGER CRYOSPHERE, PRODUCTION OF REGIONALLY ENHANCED FT RECORDS FOR NORTHERN (>/=45N) LAND AREAS USING SIMILAR OVERLAPPING TB RECORDS FROM THE ADVANCED MICROWAVE SCANNING RADIOMETER FOR EOS (AMSR-E) AND WINDSAT, WITH POTENTIAL TWO- TO FOUR-FOLD SPATIAL RESOLUTION ENHANCEMENT OVER THE EXISTING FT-ESDR BASELINE. THE PROPOSED FTESDR SERVES SEVERAL EARTH SCIENCE FOCUS AREAS AND ASSOCIATED USER COMMUNITIES, INCLUDING WATER&ENERGY CYCLE, CARBON CYCLE&ECOSYSTEMS, AND CLIMATE VARIABILITY&CHANGE. THE INITIAL FT-ESDR (VERSION 01) IS PUBLICLY AVAILABLE THROUGH THE NSIDC DAAC; CURRENT (FEB-012) USER METRICS FOR THESE DATA INDICATE MORE THAN 2083 HITS AND 138 GB OF DATA DOWNLOADED TO THE COMMUNITY, WITH MORE THAN 20 KNOWN SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS INVOLVING THESE DATA, WHILE THE NUMBER OF USERS, SCIENCE APPLICATIONS AND PUBLICATIONS FROM THESE DATA CONTINUE TO GROW. THE PROPOSED FT-ESDR CONTINUITY AND ENHANCEMENTS WILL ENABLE PRECISE DETECTION AND DIAGNOSIS OF BOTH CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND LONG-TERM TRENDS EXTENDING OVER ALMOST 40 YEARS. THE PROPOSED ACTIVITIES WILL DIRECTLY BENEFIT THE NASA SMAP MISSION, WHICH HAS A PLANNED MID-2014 LAUNCH AND WILL PROVIDE AN OPERATIONAL FT PRODUCT SIMILAR TO THE FT-ESDR; THE PROPOSED DATA RECORDS WILL INFORM MISSION SCIENCE AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION, AND PROVIDE BASELINE INFORMATION FOR ASSESSING THE GLOBAL CHANGE SIGNIFICANCE OF FUTURE FT MEASUREMENTS FROM SMAP AND ASSOCIATED ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS, VALIDATION AND UNCERTAINTY MEASUREMENTS FOR MEETING MISSION OBJECTIVES.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AB20A  
Monday, March 28, 2016
$3,281.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
ARCTIC-BOREAL REGIONS (ABRS) OF NORTH AMERICA ARE WARMING AT A RATE ALMOST THREE TIMES HIGHER THAN THE GLOBAL AVERAGE, AND THE BIOPHYSICAL RESPONSES ARE ACUTE. MOST REGIONAL SCALE STUDIES TO DATE HAVE EXPLORED CONSEQUENCES ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING AND ENERGY BALANCE. FAR LESS ATTENTION HAS BEEN PAID TO THE VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE OF WILDLIFE THROUGHOUT THE ABR, DESPITE THE FACT THAT THE REGION HOSTS THE PLANET S MOST DIVERSE NEOTROPICAL MIGRANT SONGBIRD COMMUNITIES, CARIBOU WHICH ARE AMONG THE MOST ABUNDANT LONG RANGE MIGRATORY LARGE HERBIVORES IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE, AND INTACT YET THREATENED MAMMALIAN TROPHIC SYSTEMS. MANY ABR SPECIES PLAY UNIQUE ECOLOGICAL ROLES AND ARE OF CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE TO INDIGENOUS PEOPLE. MANY RECENT STUDIES SUGGEST THAT ANIMAL HABITAT THROUGHOUT THE ABR IS UNDERGOING RAPID AND PROFOUND CHANGE. FOR EXAMPLE, THE REGION IS UNDERGOING ALTERED VEGETATION PRODUCTIVITY, PHENOLOGY, COMPOSITION, AND BIO-PHYSICAL AND -CHEMICAL STRUCTURES; MORE EXTREME SWINGS IN SEASONALITY OF METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS; MORE FREQUENT DROUGHT CONDITIONS; CHANGES IN SNOW AND ICE COVER PROPERTIES, DYNAMICS AND DURATION; ENHANCEMENT OF DISTURBANCE REGIMES, AND; INCREASING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. EACH OF THESE CHANGES ALTERS WILDLIFE HABITAT IN UNIQUE WAYS - VERY OFTEN OVERLAPPING AND INTERACTING WITH ONE ANOTHER IN TIME AND SPACE. IN ADDITION, THERE IS HIGH SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY IN BOTH THE DIRECTION AND MAGNITUDE OF THESE CHANGES ACROSS THE ABR, YET LITTLE EFFORT HAS BEEN MADE TO UNDERSTAND THE ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES. HIGHLY MOBILE FAUNA OF THE ABR MUST NAVIGATE THROUGH AN INCREASINGLY COMPLEX AND DYNAMIC MOSAIC OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND LAND SURFACE CONDITIONS, BUT HOW VULNERABLE OR RESISTANT THEIR LONG-TERM PERSISTENCE IS TO THE INCREASING SPATIOTEMPORAL HETEROGENEITY IS UNKNOWN. ALTHOUGH THERE HAS BEEN SOME FOCUS ON HOW CHANGING CONDITIONS IN THE ABR AFFECT WILDLIFE HABITAT QUALITY AND SELECTION, THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF THESE STUDIES HAVE FOCUSED ON HOW HABITAT SELECTION BY ONE SPECIES (OR COMMUNITY OF SIMILAR SPECIES) RESPONDS TO A SINGLE EXTREME OR DISTURBANCE EVENT. RECENT AND EMERGING ADVANCES IN SPACE-BASED ANIMAL TRACKING TECHNOLOGY ALLOW DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF WILDLIFE MOVEMENTS ACROSS ANIMAL TAXA, OVER VAST AND REMOTE REGIONS, AND OVER MULTIPLE YEARS. IMPORTANTLY, THESE REGIONAL-SCALE AND NEAR-CONTINUOUS DESCRIPTIONS OF ANIMAL LOCATIONS CAN BE EXPLICITLY LINKED TO REMOTE SENSING OBSERVATIONS OF DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, WHICH ENABLES EXAMINATION OF ANIMAL RESPONSES TO A WIDE RANGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND EXTREME EVENTS THAT OCCUR - OFTEN UNPREDICTABLY - THROUGHOUT THEIR RANGES AND LIFE HISTORIES. OUR OVERARCHING SCIENCE GOAL IS TO UNDERSTAND HOW HIGHLY MOBILE TERRESTRIAL FAUNA NAVIGATE AND SELECT HABITAT IN THE RAPIDLY CHANGING ABOVE STUDY DOMAIN. FACILITATED BY MANY DATA-SHARING COLLABORATIONS WITH US AND CANADIAN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, WE WILL USE SPACE-BASED WILDLIFE TRACKING TECHNOLOGY TO BUILD AN INTEGRATED DATASET OF REGIONAL-SCALE AND NEAR-CONTINUOUS DESCRIPTIONS OF PASSERINE (AMERICAN ROBINS), RAPTOR (GOLDEN EAGLES), UNGULATE (CARIBOU, MOOSE), AND PREDATOR (WOLF AND BROWN BEAR) LOCATIONS WITH BOTH STATIC AND DYNAMIC REMOTE SENSING PRODUCTS AND OTHER REGIONAL-SCALE GEOSPATIAL DATASETS (OBJ.1). WE WILL USE THIS DATA TO BUILD EMPIRICALLY BASED STATISTICAL MOVEMENT AND HABITAT SELECTION MODELS FOR MULTIPLE GROUPS OF ANIMALS ACROSS THE ABOVE STUDY DOMAIN (OBJ.2). THE GEOSPATIAL TOOLS AND PRODUCTS WILL BE MADE ACCESSIBLE TO NATURAL RESOURCE AGENCIES, WILDLIFE MANAGERS, FIRST NATIONS, ALASKAN NATIVES, AND OTHER STAKEHOLDERS TO AID THEM IN MANAGEMENT AND ADAPTATION DECISIONS (OBJ.3). FURTHER, OUR NOVEL MODELS AND GEOSPATIAL TOOLS WILL BE AVAILABLE FOR PHASE 2 AND 3 ABOVE STUDIES IN WHICH FUTURE PROJECTIONS OF ANIMAL MOVEMENT AND HABITAT SELECTION WILL BE MADE, AND SUBSEQUENTLY USED TO DETERMINE SOCIETAL CONSEQUENCES AND DEVELOP DECISION SUPPORT PRODUCTS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AW71A  
Thursday, March 10, 2016
$1,175,484.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
ARC00: AMES RESEARCH CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
FPDS BASE DESCRIPTION, MULTIPLE YEAR AWARD AND INCREMENTAL FUNDING FOR YEARS ONE TO FIVE. THIS PROPOSAL IS ENTITLED, "RELIVING THE PAST: EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION OF MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE HISTORY OF LIFE." THIS IS AWARDED IN RESPONSE TO COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NOTICE (CAN) NO. NNH13ZDA017C, NASA ASTROBIOLOGY INSTITUTE, CYCLE SEVEN (7). THE PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR IS DR. RAPHAEL F. ROSENZWEIG WITH UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA (UMT). PROJECT SUMMARY: TO ILLUMINATE THE LAWS THAT PRODUCE DARWIN'S "TANGLED BANK" REMAINS ONE OF BIOLOGY'S GRAND CHALLENGES, ONE THAT REQUIRES UNDERSTANDING HOW DIFFERENCES AMOUNT FORMS ARE SELECTED FOR AND HOW INTERDEPENDENCE AMOUNT FORMS IS ENFORCED. IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS, MEETING THIS CHALLENGE IS COMPLICATED BY THE FACT THAT SELECTION PRESSURES OFTEN VARY WIDELY OVER SPACE AND THROUGH TIME. LABORATORY EVOLUTION EXPERIMENTS WITH MICROBIAL POPULATION OFFER AN ATTRACTIVE ALTERNATIVE BY WHICH TO STUDY, UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS, BOTH THE DYNAMIC INTERPLAY BETWEEN GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE AND THE INTERACTIONS AMONG PHENOTYPES IN SIMPLE COMMUNITIES. INDEED, BECAUSE THE PRINCIPAL ACTORS IN THE FIRST 2.5 BILLION YEARS OF LIFE'S DRAMA WERE EXCLUSIVELY MICROBES, WE ARE OBLIGATED TO USE THESE FORMS TO UNLOCK THE SECRETS OF LIFE'S TRANSITIONS FROM SIMPLE AUTOCATALYTIC UNITS TO SELF-ORGANIZING, SELF-REPLICATING, ENERGY TRANSDUCTION SYSTEMS THAT RANGE IN COMPLEXITY FROM SINGLE CELLS TO ECOSYSTEMS. OUR TEAM IS RESPONDING TO NAI CAN 7 WITH A MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROPOSAL TO ADDRESS: WHAT FORCES BRING ABOUT MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE EVOLUTION OF BIO-COMPLEXITY? OUR PROGRAM AIMS TO MEET THE GRANT CHALLENGE OF ILLUMINATING AND INTERPRETING THE LAWS THAT PRODUCE THE "TANGLED BANK" SO THAT WE MAY BETTER UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE THE GRANDEUR IN THE VIEW OF LIFE....THAT, WHILST THIS PLANET HAS GONE CYCLING ON ACCORDING TO THE FIXED LAW OF GRAVITY, FROM SO SIMPLE A BEGINNING ENDLESS FORMS MOST BEAUTIFUL AND MOST WONDERFUL HAVE BEEN, AND ARE BEING, EVOLVED. THE LAWS ORIGINAL INFERRED BY DARWIN WERE THOSE THAT GIVE RISE TO NATURAL SELECTION, WHICH IS A CONSEQUENCE OF NATURAL VARIATION, INHERITANCE OF VARIATION, AND THE DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVORSHIP OF VARIANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR FITNESS. 150 YEAR LATER WE NOW RECOGNIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF OTHER FACTORS, IN PARTICULAR CHANGE, WHETHER IN THE FORM OF GENETIC DRIFT OR HISTORICAL CONTINGENCY. OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE MECHANISM OF INHERITANCE CONTINUES TO BE REFINED BY NEW INSIGHTS INTO WHAT CONSTITUTES A GENE, HOW GENES INTERACT AND HOW MUTATION RATE ITSELF IS SUBJECT TO NATURAL SELECTION. OUR ASTROBIOLOGY PROJECT IS ORGANIZED AROUND A SET OF QUESTIONS RELATED TO MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE HISTORY OF LIFE, WHEN INDEPENDENTLY REPLICATING ENTITIES COMBINE IN TO LARGER, MORE COMPLEX WHOLES: (I) HOW DO ENZYMES AND METABOLIC NETWORKS EVOLVE?, (II) HOW DID THE EUKARYOTIC CELL, SPECIFICALLY THE CELL THAT CONTAINED A MITOCHONDRION, COME TO BE?, (III) HOW DO SYMBIOSES ARISE?, (IV) HOW DOES MULTICELLULARITY EVOLVE?, AND (V) HOW DO PLEIOTROPY, EPISTASIS AND MUTATION RATE CONSTRAIN THE EVOLUTION OF NOVEL TRAITS? A UNIFYING THEM UNDERLYING THESE QUESTIONS IS: HOW DO COOPERATIVE VS. COMPETITIVE INTERACTIONS PLAY OUT IN DRIVING MAJOR TRANSITIONS? SEEKING THE ANSWERS TO THESE QUESTIONS FALLS SQUARELY WITHIN ASTROBIOLOGY, WHICH IS THE STUDY OF THE ORIGINS, EVOLUTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND FUTURE OF LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE, AND HELPS TO ADDRESS THE FIRST OF OUR DISCIPLINE'S THREE PRINCIPAL QUESTIONS: HOW DOES LIFE BEGIN AND EVOLVE?
AR11: R&D- SPACE: AERONAUTICS/SPACE TECHNOLOGY (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNA15BB04A     NNH13ZDA017C  
Tuesday, March 1, 2016
$0.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
03R6: R1, LOLO NATIONAL FOREST

B: PURCHASE ORDER
PHONE SERVICE FROM UOFM TO CARHART CENTER
5805: TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH EQUIPMENT

  AG03R6P160013  
Monday, February 22, 2016
($0.01)
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
AS FAR AS WE KNOW, THE MODIS 8-DAY, 1KM GPP (GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION) AND ANNUAL NPP (NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION) ARE THE ONLY FULL GLOBAL COVERAGE TERRESTRIAL CARBON CYCLE VARIABLES PRODUCED REGULARLY, AND DISTRIBUTED FREELY IN THE WORLD. IN ADDITION, THE COMPANION GLOBAL 8-DAY 1KM ET (EVAPOTRANSPIRATION) DATASET FILLS A PREVIOUSLY UNMET NEED FOR AN EQUIVALENT GLOBAL VEGETATION WATER CYCLE VARIABLE. THIS PROPOSAL AIMS TO CONTINUE IMPROVEMENTS AND VALIDATION OF THESE DATASETS WHILE PROVIDING CONTINUITY OF THESE GLOBAL VARIABLES SINCE 2000 AT 1KM OR BETTER RESOLUTION. WE WALK THE TIGHT-ROPE BETWEEN RESEARCH AND QUASI-OPERATIONAL STATUS WITH THIS PROPOSAL, AS WE SERVE A LARGE AND GROWING USER COMMUNITY WITH THIS DATASET. (THE ZHAO ET AL 2005 PAPER ON OUR MODIS NPP DATASET IN REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT WAS THE HIGHEST CITED PAPER IN THAT LEAD REMOTE SENSING JOURNAL OVER THE LAST FIVE YEARS.) SO, WE PROPOSE TO; (1) TEST AND IMPLEMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO THE SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND TEMPORAL CONSISTENCY OF THE INPUT DATA; (2) EXPAND GLOBAL VALIDATION ACTIVITIES MOSTLY WITH FLUXNET SITES; (3) FINALIZE THE ALGORITHM THEORETICAL BASIS DOCUMENT (ATBD) FOR OUR COMPANION EVAPOTRANSPIRATION ALGORITHM AND DELIVER PRODUCTION CODE; (4) EXPLORE THE ROLE OF OUR NPP AND ET IN GLOBAL CARBON AND WATER CYCLE AND CLIMATE RESEARCH AND (5) WORK WITH INTERNATIONAL SCIENCE GROUPS SUCH AS IGBP, GTOS, GLOBAL CARBON PROJECT, NACP AND OTHERS TO USE THESE GLOBAL DATASETS FOR INTEGRATED GLOBAL CHANGE METRICS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX11AF18G  
Monday, February 15, 2016
($49.47)
1200: Department of Agriculture
03R6: R1, LOLO NATIONAL FOREST

B: PURCHASE ORDER
FOOD IN LIEU OF PER DIEM FOR THE INTERAGENCY NATIONAL WILDERNESS LEADERSHIP TRAINING COURSE - JUNE 22-27, 2015
8970: COMPOSITE FOOD PACKAGES

  AG03R6P150115  
Tuesday, February 2, 2016
$9,949.00
1400: Department of the Interior
00003: OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND GRANTS - SACRAMENTO

B: PURCHASE ORDER
IGF::OT::IGF GENETIC ANALYSIS
B516: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- ANIMAL/FISHERIES

  ING16PX00324  
Monday, January 25, 2016
$50,000.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
024B: NTL INTERAGENCY FIRE CENTER

A: BPA CALL
IGF::CT::IGF COURSE DELIVERY/PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTOR SERVICES FOR THE WILDLAND FIRE APPRENTICE PROGRAM AGAINST THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA BPA
U008: EDUCATION/TRAINING- TRAINING/CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

  AG024BK160011     AG024BB150002  
Friday, January 15, 2016
$167,926.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
ARC00: AMES RESEARCH CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
FPDS BASE DESCRIPTION, MULTIPLE YEAR AWARD AND INCREMENTAL FUNDING FOR YEARS ONE TO FIVE. THIS PROPOSAL IS ENTITLED, "RELIVING THE PAST: EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION OF MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE HISTORY OF LIFE." THIS IS AWARDED IN RESPONSE TO COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NOTICE (CAN) NO. NNH13ZDA017C, NASA ASTROBIOLOGY INSTITUTE, CYCLE SEVEN (7). THE PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR IS DR. RAPHAEL F. ROSENZWEIG WITH UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA (UMT). PROJECT SUMMARY: TO ILLUMINATE THE LAWS THAT PRODUCE DARWIN'S "TANGLED BANK" REMAINS ONE OF BIOLOGY'S GRAND CHALLENGES, ONE THAT REQUIRES UNDERSTANDING HOW DIFFERENCES AMOUNT FORMS ARE SELECTED FOR AND HOW INTERDEPENDENCE AMOUNT FORMS IS ENFORCED. IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS, MEETING THIS CHALLENGE IS COMPLICATED BY THE FACT THAT SELECTION PRESSURES OFTEN VARY WIDELY OVER SPACE AND THROUGH TIME. LABORATORY EVOLUTION EXPERIMENTS WITH MICROBIAL POPULATION OFFER AN ATTRACTIVE ALTERNATIVE BY WHICH TO STUDY, UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS, BOTH THE DYNAMIC INTERPLAY BETWEEN GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE AND THE INTERACTIONS AMONG PHENOTYPES IN SIMPLE COMMUNITIES. INDEED, BECAUSE THE PRINCIPAL ACTORS IN THE FIRST 2.5 BILLION YEARS OF LIFE'S DRAMA WERE EXCLUSIVELY MICROBES, WE ARE OBLIGATED TO USE THESE FORMS TO UNLOCK THE SECRETS OF LIFE'S TRANSITIONS FROM SIMPLE AUTOCATALYTIC UNITS TO SELF-ORGANIZING, SELF-REPLICATING, ENERGY TRANSDUCTION SYSTEMS THAT RANGE IN COMPLEXITY FROM SINGLE CELLS TO ECOSYSTEMS. OUR TEAM IS RESPONDING TO NAI CAN 7 WITH A MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROPOSAL TO ADDRESS: WHAT FORCES BRING ABOUT MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE EVOLUTION OF BIO-COMPLEXITY? OUR PROGRAM AIMS TO MEET THE GRANT CHALLENGE OF ILLUMINATING AND INTERPRETING THE LAWS THAT PRODUCE THE "TANGLED BANK" SO THAT WE MAY BETTER UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE THE GRANDEUR IN THE VIEW OF LIFE....THAT, WHILST THIS PLANET HAS GONE CYCLING ON ACCORDING TO THE FIXED LAW OF GRAVITY, FROM SO SIMPLE A BEGINNING ENDLESS FORMS MOST BEAUTIFUL AND MOST WONDERFUL HAVE BEEN, AND ARE BEING, EVOLVED. THE LAWS ORIGINAL INFERRED BY DARWIN WERE THOSE THAT GIVE RISE TO NATURAL SELECTION, WHICH IS A CONSEQUENCE OF NATURAL VARIATION, INHERITANCE OF VARIATION, AND THE DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVORSHIP OF VARIANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR FITNESS. 150 YEAR LATER WE NOW RECOGNIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF OTHER FACTORS, IN PARTICULAR CHANGE, WHETHER IN THE FORM OF GENETIC DRIFT OR HISTORICAL CONTINGENCY. OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE MECHANISM OF INHERITANCE CONTINUES TO BE REFINED BY NEW INSIGHTS INTO WHAT CONSTITUTES A GENE, HOW GENES INTERACT AND HOW MUTATION RATE ITSELF IS SUBJECT TO NATURAL SELECTION. OUR ASTROBIOLOGY PROJECT IS ORGANIZED AROUND A SET OF QUESTIONS RELATED TO MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE HISTORY OF LIFE, WHEN INDEPENDENTLY REPLICATING ENTITIES COMBINE IN TO LARGER, MORE COMPLEX WHOLES: (I) HOW DO ENZYMES AND METABOLIC NETWORKS EVOLVE?, (II) HOW DID THE EUKARYOTIC CELL, SPECIFICALLY THE CELL THAT CONTAINED A MITOCHONDRION, COME TO BE?, (III) HOW DO SYMBIOSES ARISE?, (IV) HOW DOES MULTICELLULARITY EVOLVE?, AND (V) HOW DO PLEIOTROPY, EPISTASIS AND MUTATION RATE CONSTRAIN THE EVOLUTION OF NOVEL TRAITS? A UNIFYING THEM UNDERLYING THESE QUESTIONS IS: HOW DO COOPERATIVE VS. COMPETITIVE INTERACTIONS PLAY OUT IN DRIVING MAJOR TRANSITIONS? SEEKING THE ANSWERS TO THESE QUESTIONS FALLS SQUARELY WITHIN ASTROBIOLOGY, WHICH IS THE STUDY OF THE ORIGINS, EVOLUTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND FUTURE OF LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE, AND HELPS TO ADDRESS THE FIRST OF OUR DISCIPLINE'S THREE PRINCIPAL QUESTIONS: HOW DOES LIFE BEGIN AND EVOLVE?
AR11: R&D- SPACE: AERONAUTICS/SPACE TECHNOLOGY (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNA15BB04A     NNH13ZDA017C  
Monday, December 21, 2015
$45,000.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
03R6: R1, LOLO NATIONAL FOREST

D: DEFINITIVE CONTRACT
DB MAINTENANCE&MANAGEMENT FOR POPULATION OCCURRENCE RECORDS OF THREATENED, ENDANGERED&SENSITIVE SPECIES IN MT. IGF::OT::IGF
B509: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- ENDANGERED SPECIES: PLANT/ANIMAL

  AG03R6C160006  
Wednesday, December 16, 2015
($11.95)
1200: Department of Agriculture
43ZP: SOUTHERN REGIONAL OFFICE

B: PURCHASE ORDER
IGF::CL::IGF LOGISTICAL SUPPORT FOR SALE AREA LAYOUT AND HARVESTING INSTITUTE (SALHI) SESSION II - MAY 11-23, 2013
U099: EDUCATION/TRAINING- OTHER

  AG43ZPP140009  
Thursday, November 5, 2015
($108.00)
1200: Department of Agriculture
03R6: R1, LOLO NATIONAL FOREST

B: PURCHASE ORDER
PHONE SERVICE FROM UOFM TO CARHART CENTER. IGF::CL,CT::IGF
D304: IT AND TELECOM- TELECOMMUNICATIONS AND TRANSMISSION

  AG03R6P150016  
Thursday, October 22, 2015
$87,593.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
03R6: R1, LOLO NATIONAL FOREST

D: DEFINITIVE CONTRACT
IGF::OT::IGF FACILITY AND SUPPORT FOR THE NORTHERN REGION UNIVERSITY (NRU)AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA IGF::OT::IGF
W099: LEASE OR RENTAL OF EQUIPMENT- MISCELLANEOUS

  AG03R6C140009  
Thursday, October 1, 2015
$4,410.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
03R6: R1, LOLO NATIONAL FOREST

B: PURCHASE ORDER
PHONE SERVICE FROM UOFM TO CARHART CENTER
5805: TELEPHONE AND TELEGRAPH EQUIPMENT

  AG03R6P160013  
Tuesday, September 22, 2015
$3,742.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
ARCTIC BOREAL REGIONS, ABRS, OF NORTH AMERICA ARE WARMING AT A RATE ALMOST THREE TIMES HIGHER THAN THE GLOBAL AVERAGE, AND THE BIOPHYSICAL RESPONSES ARE ACUTE. MOST REGIONAL SCALE STUDIES TO DATE HAVE EXPLORED CONSEQUENCES ON BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLING AND ENERGY BALANCE. FAR LESS ATTENTION HAS BEEN PAID TO THE VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE OF WILDLIFE THROUGHOUT THE ABR, DESPITE THE FACT THAT THE REGION HOSTS THE PLANET'S MOST DIVERSE NEOTROPICAL MIGRANT SONGBIRD COMMUNITIES, CARIBOU WHICH ARE AMONG THE MOST ABUNDANT LONG RANGE MIGRATORY LARGE HERBIVORES IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE, AND INTACT YET THREATENED MAMMALIAN TROPHIC SYSTEMS. MANY ABR SPECIES PLAY UNIQUE ECOLOGICAL ROLES AND ARE OF CULTURAL AND ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE TO INDIGENOUS PEOPLE. MANY RECENT STUDIES SUGGEST THAT ANIMAL HABITAT THROUGHOUT THE ABR IS UNDERGOING RAPID AND PROFOUND CHANGE. FOR EXAMPLE, THE REGION IS UNDERGOING ALTERED VEGETATION PRODUCTIVITY, PHENOLOGY, COMPOSITION, AND BIOPHYSICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STRUCTURES; MORE EXTREME SWINGS IN SEASONALITY OF METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS; MORE FREQUENT DROUGHT CONDITIONS; CHANGES IN SNOW AND ICE COVER PROPERTIES, DYNAMICS AND DURATION; ENHANCEMENT OF DISTURBANCE REGIMES, AND; INCREASING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. EACH OF THESE CHANGES ALTERS WILDLIFE HABITAT IN UNIQUE WAYS, VERY OFTEN OVERLAPPING AND INTERACTING WITH ONE ANOTHER IN TIME AND SPACE. IN ADDITION, THERE IS HIGH SPATIAL HETEROGENEITY IN BOTH THE DIRECTION AND MAGNITUDE OF THESE CHANGES ACROSS THE ABR, YET LITTLE EFFORT HAS BEEN MADE TO UNDERSTAND THE ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES. HIGHLY MOBILE FAUNA OF THE ABR MUST NAVIGATE THROUGH AN INCREASINGLY COMPLEX AND DYNAMIC MOSAIC OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND LAND SURFACE CONDITIONS, BUT HOW VULNERABLE OR RESISTANT THEIR LONG TERM PERSISTENCE IS TO THE INCREASING SPATIOTEMPORAL HETEROGENEITY IS UNKNOWN. ALTHOUGH THERE HAS BEEN SOME FOCUS ON HOW CHANGING CONDITIONS IN THE ABR AFFECT WILDLIFE HABITAT QUALITY AND SELECTION, THE OVERWHELMING MAJORITY OF THESE STUDIES HAVE FOCUSED ON HOW HABITAT SELECTION BY ONE SPECIES, OR COMMUNITY OF SIMILAR SPECIES, RESPONDS TO A SINGLE EXTREME OR DISTURBANCE EVENT. RECENT AND EMERGING ADVANCES IN SPACE BASED ANIMAL TRACKING TECHNOLOGY ALLOW DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF WILDLIFE MOVEMENTS ACROSS ANIMAL TAXA, OVER VAST AND REMOTE REGIONS, AND OVER MULTIPLE YEARS. IMPORTANTLY, THESE REGIONAL SCALE AND NEAR CONTINUOUS DESCRIPTIONS OF ANIMAL LOCATIONS CAN BE EXPLICITLY LINKED TO REMOTE SENSING OBSERVATIONS OF DYNAMIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS, WHICH ENABLES EXAMINATION OF ANIMAL RESPONSES TO A WIDE RANGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND EXTREME EVENTS THAT OCCUR, OFTEN UNPREDICTABLY, THROUGHOUT THEIR RANGES AND LIFE HISTORIES. OUR OVERARCHING SCIENCE GOAL IS TO UNDERSTAND HOW HIGHLY MOBILE TERRESTRIAL FAUNA NAVIGATE AND SELECT HABITAT IN THE RAPIDLY CHANGING ABOVE STUDY DOMAIN. FACILITATED BY MANY DATA SHARING COLLABORATIONS WITH US AND CANADIAN GOVERNMENT AGENCIES, WE WILL USE SPACE BASED WILDLIFE TRACKING TECHNOLOGY TO BUILD AN INTEGRATED DATASET OF REGIONAL SCALE AND NEAR CONTINUOUS DESCRIPTIONS OF PASSERINE, AMERICAN ROBINS, RAPTOR, GOLDEN EAGLES, UNGULATE, CARIBOU, MOOSE, AND PREDATOR, WOLF AND BROWN BEAR LOCATIONS WITH BOTH STATIC AND DYNAMIC REMOTE SENSING PRODUCTS AND OTHER REGIONAL SCALE GEOSPATIAL DATASETS, OBJ.1. WE WILL USE THIS DATA TO BUILD EMPIRICALLY BASED STATISTICAL MOVEMENT AND HABITAT SELECTION MODELS FOR MULTIPLE GROUPS OF ANIMALS ACROSS THE ABOVE STUDY DOMAIN, OBJ.2. THE GEOSPATIAL TOOLS AND PRODUCTS WILL BE MADE ACCESSIBLE TO NATURAL RESOURCE AGENCIES, WILDLIFE MANAGERS, FIRST NATIONS, ALASKAN NATIVES, AND OTHER STAKEHOLDERS TO AID THEM IN MANAGEMENT AND ADAPTATION DECISIONS, OBJ.3. FURTHER, OUR NOVEL MODELS AND GEOSPATIAL TOOLS WILL BE AVAILABLE FOR PHASE 2 AND 3 ABOVE STUDIES IN WHICH FUTURE PROJECTIONS OF ANIMAL MOVEMENT AND HABITAT SELECTION WILL BE MADE, AND SUBSEQUENTLY USED TO DETERMINE SOCIETAL CONSEQUENCES AND DEVELOP DECISION SUPPORT PRODUCTS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AW71A  
Tuesday, September 15, 2015
$23,250.00
1400: Department of the Interior
00003: OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND GRANTS - SACRAMENTO

C: DELIVERY ORDER
IGF::OT::IGF, EDNA PCR PRIMERS/PROTOCOLS, 0040214131
B516: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- ANIMAL/FISHERIES

  ING15PD01047     ING15PC00055  
Tuesday, September 15, 2015
$0.00
1400: Department of the Interior
00003: OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND GRANTS - SACRAMENTO

B: IDC
IGF::OT::IGF, EDNA PCR PRIMERS/PROTOCOLS, IDIQ CONTRACT, 0010705220 (M/T)
B516: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- ANIMAL/FISHERIES

  ING15PC00055     G15PS00611  
Friday, September 11, 2015
$122,703.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN MODEL ASSESSMENT OF LANDSCAPE VARIABILITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS ON THE ARCTIC-BOREAL CARBON BUDGET WE WILL APPLY A SATELLITE DATA DRIVEN CARBON MODEL FRAMEWORK TO IMPROVE UNDERSTANDING AND QUANTIFICATION OF CARBON (CO2 AND CH4) FLUXES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROLS ON THE NET ECOSYSTEM CARBON BUDGET (NECB) OVER THE ABOVE DOMAIN. WE WILL DEVELOP A FOUNDATIONAL DATABASE TO EXPLORE AND QUANTIFY LINKS BETWEEN CHANGING SURFACE CONDITIONS, INCLUDING FREEZE-THAW (FT) REGIMES, SOIL MOISTURE AND OPEN WATER INUNDATION, AND ARCTIC-BOREAL CARBON FLUXES. THESE DATA WILL LINK LOCAL TOWER SITE OBSERVATIONS WITH CARVE AIRBORNE ATMOSPHERIC CO2 AND CH4 MEASUREMENTS AND OTHER LAND PARAMETERS DERIVED FROM SATELLITE OPTICAL AND MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING TO CLARIFY SURFACE MOISTURE AND THERMAL CONSTRAINTS TO VEGETATION GROWTH AND SOIL CARBON CYCLING. WE WILL APPLY THESE DATA WITHIN A TERRESTRIAL CARBON FLUX (TCF) MODEL TO QUANTIFY THE NECB, COMPONENT CARBON FLUXES AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS. MODEL SENSITIVITY STUDIES WILL BE CONDUCTED AT SITE, LOCAL AND REGIONAL SCALES IN CONTEXT WITH REMOTE SENSING OBSERVATIONS TO DOCUMENT MODEL UNCERTAINTIES AND SCALING PROPERTIES OF CRITICAL DRIVERS. THESE RESULTS WILL BE USED TO IMPROVE MODEL REPRESENTATIONS OF SUB-GRID SCALE PROCESSES AFFECTING CARBON FLUX ESTIMATES, WHILE INCORPORATING REGIONAL MODEL ENHANCEMENTS REPRESENTING WILDFIRE DISTURBANCE RECOVERY AND WETLAND CH4 EMISSIONS. RESULTS WILL INCLUDE VERIFIED NECB MAPS, COMPONENT CARBON FLUXES AND ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS WITH DAILY TEMPORAL FIDELITY, 1-KM SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND 14+ YEAR (2003-2016) DATA RECORDS. THIS STUDY ADDRESSES SEVERAL ABOVE SCIENCE QUESTIONS, INCLUDING: "HOW ARE THE MAGNITUDES, FATES, AND LAND-ATMOSPHERE EXCHANGES OF CARBON POOLS RESPONDING TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, AND WHAT ARE THE BIOGEOCHEMICAL MECHANISMS DRIVING THESE CHANGES?" WE ALSO ADDRESS ABOVE OBJECTIVES FOR "ELUCIDATING HOW CLIMATE CHANGE AND DISTURBANCES INTERACT AND ALTER LAND-ATMOSPHERE CARBON EXCHANGE." THIS STUDY MEETS PHASE I PRIORITIES FOR DEVELOPING "A SET OF READILY ACCESSIBLE, VALIDATED DATA PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM MULTIPLE SENSORS THAT CAN BE INTEGRATED TO FORM THE BASIS FOR INVESTIGATIONS OF ECOSYSTEM AND SOCIETAL RESPONSE OVER THE ENTIRE STUDY DOMAIN." WE WILL ALSO CONTRIBUTE MODEL SENSITIVITY AND VALIDATION ACTIVITIES SUPPORTING ABOVE PHASE II AND III ACTIVITIES, WITH DIRECT APPLICATIONS TO NASA SMAP AND CARVE MISSIONS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AT74A  
Friday, August 7, 2015
($29.46)
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
NASA'S GENESIS MISSION IS PROVIDING SOLAR-WIND ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION RESULTS WITH UNPRECEDENTED ACCURACIES (I.E., UNCERTAINTIES DOWN TO FRACTIONS OF A PERCENT), AND IS ALSO PROVIDING DATA ON SOLAR-WIND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITIONS. HOWEVER, IT IS WELL KNOWN THAT SOLAR-WIND ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES ARE MODIFIED ("FRACTIONATED") RELATIVE TO SOLAR COMPOSITION, AND IT HAS RECENTLY BEEN SHOWN THAT ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS ARE ALSO MODIFIED DURING ACCELERATION OF THE SOLAR WIND, POTENTIALLY AS MUCH AS 6% FOR IMPORTANT ISOTOPES. TO ACHIEVE THE MISSION GOAL--ACCURATE SOLAR ISOTOPIC AND ELEMENTAL ABUNDANCES--THERE IS A CLEAR NEED TO UNDERSTAND THE FRACTIONATIONS BETWEEN SOLAR-WIND AND SOLAR COMPOSITIONS. WE PROPOSE TO APPLY CURRENT THEORIES OF SOLAR-WIND ACCELERATION TO CONSTRAIN AND DETERMINE THE FRACTIONATION CORRECTIONS TO APPLY TO THE GENESIS SOLAR-WIND DATA. IN ADDITION TO CURRENT THEORIES, WE WILL USE HIGH ACCURACY GENESIS DATA FROM SAMPLES OF DIFFERENT SOLAR-WIND REGIMES TO PLACE FURTHER CONSTRAINTS ON SOLAR-WIND FRACTIONATION TO, AS ABOVE, SUPPORT THE GENESIS MISSION GOAL OF ACCURATE SOLAR COMPOSITION. ADDITIONALLY, MANY OF THE TOP-PRIORITY GENESIS MEASUREMENTS UTILIZE SAMPLES FROM THE SOLAR-WIND CONCENTRATOR, AN INSTRUMENT DEVELOPED, BUILT, AND MODELED BY THE AUTHORS OF THIS PROPOSAL. THE CONCENTRATOR HAS AN INSTRUMENTAL FRACTIONATION UP TO 6% THAT DEPENDS ON A NUMBER OF PARAMETERS, INCLUDING SOLAR-WIND ION MASS-TO-CHARGE RATIO, VELOCITY, AND ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION. TO OBTAIN SOLAR-WIND COMPOSITIONS FROM THE CONCENTRATOR, THE INSTRUMENTAL FRACTIONATION MUST BE ACCURATELY DETERMINED. WE PROPOSE TO PERFORM THE NEEDED MODELING, IN CONCERT WITH OTHER MEASUREMENTS, TO ACCURATELY DETERMINE CONCENTRATOR FRACTIONATION. FURTHER, WE PROPOSE TO SUPPORT OVERALL GENESIS MEASUREMENTS BY PROVIDING CALIBRATION TARGETS IN THE FORM OF ION IMPLANTS PRODUCED AT LANL'S ION BEAM MATERIALS LABORATORY (IBML). WE ALSO PROPOSE TO CARRY OUT SOLAR-WIND IMPLANT MODELING USING THE THEORETICAL RANGES OF IONS IN MATTER (TRIM) CODE.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX10AH57G  
Tuesday, August 4, 2015
$258,448.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
UNDERSTANDING HOW SPECIES AND HABITATS ARE LIKELY TO RESPOND TO CLIMATE WARMING IS CRITICAL IN DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES FOR FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS. WE PROPOSE TO LINK HIGH-RESOLUTION SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING MAPPING OF FRESHWATER HABITATS WITH GENETIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC DATA AND SPATIALLY EXPLICIT HYDROLOGICAL AND THERMAL MODEL OUTPUTS TO ASSESS THE VULNERABILITY OF SALMON POPULATIONS UNDER CURRENT CONDITIONS AND FUTURE CLIMATE SCENARIOS. WE WILL ANSWER IMPORTANT CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT QUESTIONS REGARDING THE DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE, PHYSICAL COMPLEXITY, AND QUALITY OF FRESHWATER HABITATS AVAILABLE TO SALMON AND TROUT NOW AND UNDER PROJECTED CLIMATE CHANGE. WE WILL TRAIN ANGLERS (CROWDSOURCING) TO COLLECT IMAGES PAIRED WITH DNA SAMPLES FROM FISH TO ASSESS GENOMIC DIVERSITY AND CONNECTIVITY (GENE FLOW) AMONG MANY STREAMS AND SPECIES ACROSS THE PACIFIC RIM. THIS WORK WILL BUILD UPON AN EXISTING CONSERVATION DECISION SUPPORT WEB SYSTEM FOR WILD SALMON CONSERVATION (RAP: RIVERSCAPE ANALYSIS PROJECT; HTTP://RAP.NTSG.UMT.EDU), WHICH INCLUDES SPATIALLY EXPLICIT MAPPING OF SALMONID PHYSICAL FRESHWATER HABITATS AND PREDICTIONS OF POTENTIAL SALMON HABITATS, THEIR RELATIVE QUALITY, AND POTENTIAL VULNERABILITY. WE WILL ENHANCE THE RAP WEB SYSTEM BY IMPLEMENTING NEW SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING MEASURES OF RIPARIAN ZONE HABITAT QUALITY, AND GENETIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC INDICES OF SALMONID POPULATION VULNERABILITY DERIVED FROM LANDSCAPE GENETIC AND INDIVIDUAL-BASED SIMULATION MODELS OF POPULATION CONNECTIVITY AND ABUNDANCE. WE INITIALLY WILL FOCUS ON THE YUKON AND COLUMBIA RIVERS TO ASSESS NEW RAP METRICS ACROSS SPATIAL SCALES AND BECAUSE THE BEST AVAILABLE TIME-SERIES GENETIC AND ABUNDANCE EXIST FOR SALMONIDS IN THESE RIVERS (INCLUDING ENDANGERED CHINOOK SALMON, CHUM SALMON, AND THREATENED BULL TROUT). IN YEARS 2-4, WE WOULD ASSESS NEW RAP METRICS IN>1500 PACIFIC RIM RIVERS. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL BE USED WITH DECISION MAKERS TO IDENTIFY AND ASSESS VULNERABLE POPULATIONS, SPECIES AND ECOSYSTEMS, DESIGN LONG-TERM MONITORING PROGRAMS, INFORM FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS, AND DEVELOP CONSERVATION DELIVERY OPTIONS IN RESPONSE TO MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AB84G  
Monday, July 13, 2015
$211,410.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
BIOMASS BURNING IS THE LARGEST GLOBAL SOURCE OF PRIMARY FINE ORGANIC AEROSOL (50 TG/YR) AND THE SECOND LARGEST SOURCE OF REACTIVE NON-METHANE ORGANIC GASES (NMOG, 500 TG/YR). THESE EMISSIONS HAVE MASSIVE IMPACTS ON ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, CHEMISTRY, AND CLIMATE ON LOCAL TO GLOBAL SCALES. RAPID AND VARIABLE TRANSFORMATIONS, BOTH WITHIN AND BETWEEN THESE ORGANIC POOLS, PRODUCE OZONE AND SECONDARY AEROSOL AND IMPACT COMPOSITION AND CLIMATE IN NUMEROUS OTHER WAYS. THE INFLUENCE OF BIOMASS BURNING HAS BEEN HARD TO QUANTIFY IN PART BECAUSE IMPORTANT TYPES OF BURNING ARE UNDERSAMPLED AND CASE STUDIES OF SMOKE PLUME EVOLUTION THAT ARE SUFFICIENTLY WELL-CHARACTERIZED TO CONSTRAIN MODELS HAVE BEEN DIFFICULT TO OBTAIN. RECENT NASA AIRBORNE CAMPAIGNS HAVE ADDRESSED THESE LIMITATIONS BY CAREFULLY MEASURING BOTH THE TRANSPORT HISTORY AND THE INITIAL AND EVOLVING CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF SMOKE FROM IMPORTANT, PREVIOUSLY-UNDERSAMPLED TYPES OF BIOMASS BURNING SUCH AS TEMPERATE WILDFIRES AND CROP RESIDUE BURNING (I.E. AGRICULTURAL FIRES). THE COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL MEASUREMENTS INCLUDED BIOMASS BURNING TRACERS, PREVIOUSLY-UNQUANTIFIED GAS-PHASE PRECURSORS, AND SPECIATED AEROSOL FROM ADVANCED ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES. THE DATA FROM THESE CAMPAIGNS COULD GREATLY REDUCE THE UNCERTAINTY IN BIOMASS BURNING EMISSIONS AND THEIR IMPACTS ON ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, BUT REALIZING THIS POTENTIAL REQUIRES A CAREFUL, INTENSIVE ANALYSIS EFFORT. IN THIS PROJECT WE WILL PERFORM SUCH AN ANALYSIS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON THREE RECENT NASA AIRBORNE CAMPAIGNS: SEAC4RS (STUDIES OF EMISSIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, CLOUDS AND CLIMATE COUPLING BY REGIONAL SURVEYS), DC3 (DEEP CONVECTION CLOUDS&CHEMISTRY), AND DISCOVER-AQ (DERIVING INFORMATION ON SURFACE CONDITIONS FROM COLUMN AND VERTICALLY RESOLVED OBSERVATIONS RELEVANT TO AIR QUALITY). THESE CAMPAIGNS USED STATE-OF-THE-ART ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES TO SAMPLE SMOKE FROM NUMEROUS AGRICULTURAL AND TEMPERATE WILDFIRES. THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS PROJECT (IN EXPANDED FORM) ARE: (1) TO CREATE A NEW DATASET OF NORMALIZED EXCESS MIXING RATIOS OF MANY NMOGS (AND SELECTED OTHER SPECIES) IN BIOMASS BURNING PLUMES AS FUNCTION OF FUEL AND FIRE TYPE, TRANSPORT HISTORY, AND "TIME SINCE EMISSION" THROUGH CAREFUL ANALYSIS OF DATA COLLECTED DURING SEAC4RS, DC3, AND DISCOVER-AQ. (2) TO USE THIS DATASET TO CALCULATE EMISSION FACTORS FOR MANY IMPORTANT NMOGS INCLUDING PREVIOUSLY UNDERSAMPLED FIRE TYPES, BIOMASS BURNING TRACERS, AND SEVERAL GASES NOT PREVIOUSLY MEASURED IN BIOMASS BURNING SMOKE. (3) TO IDENTIFY CASE STUDIES FROM THESE CAMPAIGNS THAT CAN BE USED TO CONSTRAIN AND IMPROVE MODELS OF THE IMPACTS OF BIOMASS BURNING ON ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION, AIR QUALITY, AND CLIMATE. THE PROJECT DELIVERABLES WILL INCREMENTALLY, BUT SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCE UNCERTAINTY IN SEVERAL IMPORTANT DEGREES OF FREEDOM ASSOCIATED WITH ONE OF THE MOST COMPLICATED AND INFLUENTIAL EMISSION SOURCES ON EARTH. THIS WILL IMPROVE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION AND OUR ABILITY TO PREDICT FUTURE COMPOSITION CHANGES; BOTH OF WHICH ARE KEY GOALS OF THE NASA ATMOSPHERIC COMPOSITION FOCUS AREA. SPECIFICALLY, THE PROJECT WILL DECREASE UNCERTAINTY IN BOTTOM-UP MODELING OF THE ATMOSPHERE AT LOCAL TO GLOBAL SCALES AND ALSO ENABLE BETTER-CONSTRAINED TOP-DOWN ESTIMATES OF FUEL CONSUMPTION AND CO-EMITTED GREENHOUSE GASES. REDUCED UNCERTAINTY IN A MAJOR GLOBAL SOURCE SUCH AS BIOMASS BURNING WILL ALSO REDUCE UNCERTAINTY IN MANY OTHER SOURCES AND PROCESSES WITH IMPORTANT ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND CLIMATE IMPACTS, BECAUSE THESE OTHER PHENOMENA ARE FREQUENTLY IMPACTED BY MIXING WITH BIOMASS BURNING EMISSIONS.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AP45G  
Thursday, June 25, 2015
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
IN 2007, WHILE ON THE IGBP SCIENCE COMMITTEE, I ORIGINATED THE IDEA OF BUILDING WHAT BECAME THE IGBP CLIMATE CHANGE INDEX AS A MEANS TO TRANSLATE THE RAW SCIENTIFIC DATA INTO A MORE PALATABLE AND ACCURATE BUT SIMPLIFIED METRIC FOR THE PUBLIC AND POLICY MAKERS. IN THE LAST 5 YEARS I HAVE SPEND ALOT OF TIME THINKING ABOUT HOW BEST TO DO THIS. CONCURRENTLY I HAVE BEEN EVALUATING WHAT VARIABLES ARE BOTH OF CLIMATE SIGNIFICANCE, AS A FORCING OR AN IMPACT, AND HOW GOOD ARE THE DATASETS THAT REPRESENT EACH ONE. I THINK SINCE NASA IS THE LEADER OF DEVELOPING NEW BIOPHYSICAL GEOSPATIAL DATASETS, THAT WE SHOULD PROTOTYPE NATIONAL INDICATOR MAPS, AND SEE HOW WELL THEY ARE ACCEPTED BY THE LARGER NATIONAL ASSESSMENT COMMUNITY. SO I PROPOSE TO USE SOME OF OUR EXISTING MODIS LAND DATASETS TO BUILD TEST MAPS. I HAVE FOUND MAPS OF BIOPHYSICAL DATA ARE MOST EASILY INTERPRETED WHEN THEY ARE A RELATIVE ANOMALY, OR DEPARTURE FROM NORMAL RATHER THAN SOME ABSOLUTE MEASURE IN AWKWARD OR UNFAMILIAR UNITS. A WELL BUILT ANOMALY MAP WOULD IMPLICITLY DEFINE NORMAL AS THE 0 POINT, WITH DEPARTURES ABOVE OR BELOW NORMAL THAT ARE DEEMED SIGNIFICANT COLORED IN CLEARLY OPPOSING COLORS. THE WIDTH OF THE 0 POINT IMPLIES NON-SIGNIFICANT VARIABILITY. SO I PROPOSE TO USE THE ONGOING 12+ YEAR MODIS RECORD TO BUILD ANOMALY MAPS IN IDENTICAL FORMAT FOR ANNUAL: SPECTRAL VEGETATION INDEX ANOMALY, NDVI OR EVI LAI NPP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION GROWING SEASON LENGTH SNOWCOVER DURATION % FOREST DISTURBED BY FIRE, INSECT EPIDEMICS OR OTHER MORTALITY IT IS IMPORTANT TO EVALUATE EACH YEAR, AND EACH PIXEL ON THE BASIS OF WHAT WOULD BE NORMAL . NOW THAT WE HAVE 12YR OF MODIS RECORD WE CAN COMPUTE A 12 AVERAGE FOR EACH PIXEL/VARIABLE, THEN IN FORWARD PROCESSING MEASURE THE CURRENT YEAR AGAINST THIS NORMAL. THE AUDIENCE THEN CAN EASILY UNDERSTAND IF THE CURRENT YEAR IS ABOVE OR BELOW AVERAGE FOR EACH METRIC.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX13AO04G  
Wednesday, June 24, 2015
$30,000.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

T: TRAINING GRANT
FORESTS COVER APPROXIMATELY 30% OF THE EARTH'S LAND SURFACE AND ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR ABOUT 45% OF GLOBAL TERRESTRIAL CARBON (C) STORAGE. THE SEVERITY AND FREQUENCY OF ECOSYSTEM DISTURBANCE IS INCREASING GLOBALLY DUE TO WARMING TEMPERATURES AND SHIFTS IN PRECIPITATION PATTERNS. INCREASING FOREST DISTURBANCE- RELATED MORTALITY MAY BE DUE TO INCREASES IN WATER STRESS, WHICH MAY REDUCE THE RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS. RESISTANCE IS THE CAPACITY OF AN ECOSYSTEM TO REMAIN UNCHANGED IN RESPONSE TO DISTURBANCE, WHEREAS RESILIENCE IS THE ABILITY OF AN ECOSYSTEM TO RECOVER. THE OBSERVED CHANGES IN DISTURBANCE REGIMES HAVE THE POTENTIAL TO GREATLY ALTER THE C UPTAKE POTENTIAL OF FORESTS. HOWEVER, WHILE INCREASES IN DISTURBANCE-RELATED MORTALITY SUGGEST THAT TERRESTRIAL C UPTAKE SHOULD BE DECREASING, GLOBAL C BALANCE STUDIES FIND TERRESTRIAL C UPTAKE TO BE STABLE OR EVEN INCREASING, POTENTIALLY DUE TO THE INFLUENCE OF CO2 FERTILIZATION ON FOREST RESILIENCE. RECONCILING THE RESULTS OF DISTURBANCE-RELATED MORTALITY STUDIES WITH RESULTS FROM FOREST C BALANCE STUDIES REMAINS A CHALLENGE FOR EARTH SYSTEM SCIENTISTS. I PROPOSE TO INVESTIGATE THE RESISTANCE AND RESILIENCE OF FORESTS TO CHANGES IN DISTURBANCE REGIMES AND ULTIMATELY HOW THESE CHANGES HAVE AFFECTED FOREST NET C BALANCE. WHILE DISTURBANCE MAY BE INCREASING GLOBALLY, DISTURBANCE IMPACTS ON FOREST C UPTAKE MIGHT NOT BE CHANGING SIGNIFICANTLY. ADDITIONALLY, NOT ALL DISTURBANCE AGENTS (E.G. FIRE, DROUGHT, AND INSECTS) WILL INCREASE IN FREQUENCY AND/OR SEVERITY, NOR WILL THEY ALL HAVE THE SAME IMPACTS ON FOREST C CARBON BALANCE. EACH DISTURBANCE AGENT SHOULD BE EXAMINED INDIVIDUALLY TO BEST UNDERSTAND FUTURE FOREST SCENARIOS. I PROPOSE TO USE 30 METER LANDSAT REFLECTANCE DATA AND THE COMMUNITY LAND MODEL (CLM) TO DETERMINE THE C IMPACTS OF DISTURBANCES IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES FROM 1984 2100. DISTURBANCE-RELATED BIOMASS MORTALITY FROM 1984,2010 WILL BE DETECTED AND QUANTIFIED BY APPLYING A FOREST DISTURBANCE ALGORITHM THAT I HAVE DEVELOPED TO LANDSAT DATA. DETECTED BIOMASS MORTALITY WILL THEN BE ASSIGNED TO PARTICULAR DISTURBANCE AGENTS USING BAYESIAN CLASSIFICATION, AND FINALLY, AREAS WILL BE EVALUATED FOR POTENTIAL C RELEASE USING CLM. DISTURBANCE IMPACTS ON FOREST C UPTAKE CAPACITY FROM 2010 2100 WILL BE SIMULATED USING THE PAST DISTURBANCE LANDSCAPE MOSAIC AS BOUNDARY CONDITIONS FOR CLM SIMULATIONS. THE PROPOSED RESEARCH APPLIES DIRECTLY TO THE NASA 2014 STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2.2, TO ADVANCE KNOWLEDGE OF THE EARTH AS A SYSTEM TO MEET THE CHALLENGES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, AND TO IMPROVE LIFE ON OUR PLANET, AND WILL ALSO HELP TO INFORM OTHER CURRENT NASA MISSIONS SUCH AS THE GLOBAL C MONITORING SYSTEM (CMS) AS WELL AS THE ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY (OCO-2). THIS RESEARC WILL INVESTIGATE THE RESILIENCE OF FORESTS IN ORDER TO ENSURE THAT FORESTS CONTINUE TO PROVIDE ECOSYSTEM SERVICES THAT ARE VITAL TO SOCIETY.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AN16H  
Friday, June 12, 2015
$3,228.36
1200: Department of Agriculture
03R6: R1, LOLO NATIONAL FOREST

B: PURCHASE ORDER
FOOD IN LIEU OF PER DIEM FOR THE INTERAGENCY NATIONAL WILDERNESS LEADERSHIP TRAINING COURSE - JUNE 22-27, 2015
8970: COMPOSITE FOOD PACKAGES

  AG03R6P150115  
Tuesday, June 9, 2015
$14,050.60
1100: Executive Office of the President
50640: PEACE CORPS HQ

B: PURCHASE ORDER
IGF::CT::IGF MONTANA RECRUITER CONTRACT
U009: EDUCATION/TRAINING- GENERAL

  PC158034     PC15Q019  
Friday, June 5, 2015
$1,017,519.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
ARC00: AMES RESEARCH CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
FPDS BASE DESCRIPTION, MULTIPLE YEAR AWARD AND INCREMENTAL FUNDING FOR YEARS ONE TO FIVE. THIS PROPOSAL IS ENTITLED, "RELIVING THE PAST: EXPERIMENTAL EVOLUTION OF MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE HISTORY OF LIFE." THIS IS AWARDED IN RESPONSE TO COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT NOTICE (CAN) NO. NNH13ZDA017C, NASA ASTROBIOLOGY INSTITUTE, CYCLE SEVEN (7). THE PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR IS DR. RAPHAEL F. ROSENZWEIG WITH UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA (UMT). PROJECT SUMMARY: TO ILLUMINATE THE LAWS THAT PRODUCE DARWIN'S "TANGLED BANK" REMAINS ONE OF BIOLOGY'S GRAND CHALLENGES, ONE THAT REQUIRES UNDERSTANDING HOW DIFFERENCES AMOUNT FORMS ARE SELECTED FOR AND HOW INTERDEPENDENCE AMOUNT FORMS IS ENFORCED. IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS, MEETING THIS CHALLENGE IS COMPLICATED BY THE FACT THAT SELECTION PRESSURES OFTEN VARY WIDELY OVER SPACE AND THROUGH TIME. LABORATORY EVOLUTION EXPERIMENTS WITH MICROBIAL POPULATION OFFER AN ATTRACTIVE ALTERNATIVE BY WHICH TO STUDY, UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS, BOTH THE DYNAMIC INTERPLAY BETWEEN GENOTYPE AND PHENOTYPE AND THE INTERACTIONS AMONG PHENOTYPES IN SIMPLE COMMUNITIES. INDEED, BECAUSE THE PRINCIPAL ACTORS IN THE FIRST 2.5 BILLION YEARS OF LIFE'S DRAMA WERE EXCLUSIVELY MICROBES, WE ARE OBLIGATED TO USE THESE FORMS TO UNLOCK THE SECRETS OF LIFE'S TRANSITIONS FROM SIMPLE AUTOCATALYTIC UNITS TO SELF-ORGANIZING, SELF-REPLICATING, ENERGY TRANSDUCTION SYSTEMS THAT RANGE IN COMPLEXITY FROM SINGLE CELLS TO ECOSYSTEMS. OUR TEAM IS RESPONDING TO NAI CAN 7 WITH A MULTIDISCIPLINARY PROPOSAL TO ADDRESS: WHAT FORCES BRING ABOUT MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE EVOLUTION OF BIO-COMPLEXITY? OUR PROGRAM AIMS TO MEET THE GRANT CHALLENGE OF ILLUMINATING AND INTERPRETING THE LAWS THAT PRODUCE THE "TANGLED BANK" SO THAT WE MAY BETTER UNDERSTAND AND APPRECIATE THE GRANDEUR IN THE VIEW OF LIFE....THAT, WHILST THIS PLANET HAS GONE CYCLING ON ACCORDING TO THE FIXED LAW OF GRAVITY, FROM SO SIMPLE A BEGINNING ENDLESS FORMS MOST BEAUTIFUL AND MOST WONDERFUL HAVE BEEN, AND ARE BEING, EVOLVED. THE LAWS ORIGINAL INFERRED BY DARWIN WERE THOSE THAT GIVE RISE TO NATURAL SELECTION, WHICH IS A CONSEQUENCE OF NATURAL VARIATION, INHERITANCE OF VARIATION, AND THE DIFFERENTIAL REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVORSHIP OF VARIANTS ACCORDING TO THEIR FITNESS. 150 YEAR LATER WE NOW RECOGNIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF OTHER FACTORS, IN PARTICULAR CHANGE, WHETHER IN THE FORM OF GENETIC DRIFT OR HISTORICAL CONTINGENCY. OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE MECHANISM OF INHERITANCE CONTINUES TO BE REFINED BY NEW INSIGHTS INTO WHAT CONSTITUTES A GENE, HOW GENES INTERACT AND HOW MUTATION RATE ITSELF IS SUBJECT TO NATURAL SELECTION. OUR ASTROBIOLOGY PROJECT IS ORGANIZED AROUND A SET OF QUESTIONS RELATED TO MAJOR TRANSITIONS IN THE HISTORY OF LIFE, WHEN INDEPENDENTLY REPLICATING ENTITIES COMBINE IN TO LARGER, MORE COMPLEX WHOLES: (I) HOW DO ENZYMES AND METABOLIC NETWORKS EVOLVE?, (II) HOW DID THE EUKARYOTIC CELL, SPECIFICALLY THE CELL THAT CONTAINED A MITOCHONDRION, COME TO BE?, (III) HOW DO SYMBIOSES ARISE?, (IV) HOW DOES MULTICELLULARITY EVOLVE?, AND (V) HOW DO PLEIOTROPY, EPISTASIS AND MUTATION RATE CONSTRAIN THE EVOLUTION OF NOVEL TRAITS? A UNIFYING THEM UNDERLYING THESE QUESTIONS IS: HOW DO COOPERATIVE VS. COMPETITIVE INTERACTIONS PLAY OUT IN DRIVING MAJOR TRANSITIONS? SEEKING THE ANSWERS TO THESE QUESTIONS FALLS SQUARELY WITHIN ASTROBIOLOGY, WHICH IS THE STUDY OF THE ORIGINS, EVOLUTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND FUTURE OF LIFE IN THE UNIVERSE, AND HELPS TO ADDRESS THE FIRST OF OUR DISCIPLINE'S THREE PRINCIPAL QUESTIONS: HOW DOES LIFE BEGIN AND EVOLVE?
AR11: R&D- SPACE: AERONAUTICS/SPACE TECHNOLOGY (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNA15BB04A     NNH13ZDA017C  
Monday, June 1, 2015
$0.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
03R6: R1, LOLO NATIONAL FOREST

D: DEFINITIVE CONTRACT
FACILITY AND SUPPORT FOR THE NORTHERN REGION UNIVERSITY (NRU)AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA IGF::OT::IGF
W099: LEASE OR RENTAL OF EQUIPMENT- MISCELLANEOUS

  AG03R6C140009  
Thursday, May 28, 2015
$163,328.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SMAP SCIENCE TEAM. I PROPOSE TO CONTRIBUTE TO THE SMAP SCIENCE TEAM (ST) IN SUPPORTING CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE AND RELATED APPLICATIONS ENABLED BY NEW SMAP FREEZE/THAW (FT) AND SOIL MOISTURE OBSERVATIONS. PROPOSED UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA (UMT) CONTRIBUTIONS TO PRE- AND POST-LAUNCH ST ACTIVITIES INCLUDE CALIBRATION AND VALIDATION (CAL/VAL) SUPPORT FOR THE SMAP LEVEL 4 CARBON (L4_C) PRODUCT AS DOCUMENTED IN THE SMAP CAL/VAL PLAN AND L4_C ALGORITHM THEORETICAL BASIS DOCUMENT (ATBD); THESE ACTIVITIES WILL AUGMENT UMT PRODUCT MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES ALREADY SUPPORTED BY THE MISSION. UMT ST CONTRIBUTIONS AND DELIVERABLES WILL INCLUDE L4_C PRODUCT ASSESSMENTS AT CORE AND SECONDARY TOWER VALIDATION SITES TO QUANTIFY PRODUCT ACCURACY AGAINST INDEPENDENT TOWER EDDY COVARIANCE MEASUREMENT BASED ESTIMATES OF NET ECOSYSTEM CO2 EXCHANGE (NEE), COMPONENT CARBON FLUXES (GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND ECOSYSTEM RESPIRATION) AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS, INCLUDING FT AND SOIL MOISTURE VARIABILITY. WE WILL ENHANCE THE L4_C CAL/VAL ACTIVITIES TO INCLUDE ADDITIONAL ALGORITHM AND PRODUCT COMPARISONS AGAINST SYNERGISTIC TOWER OBSERVATIONS AND STAND TO REGIONAL SCALE CARBON PRODUCTS PRODUCED UNDER THE NASA AIRMOSS MISSION. WE WILL ALSO CONDUCT OFFLINE FORWARD MODEL SIMULATIONS AND SENSITIVITY STUDIES USING THE UMT L4_C ALGORITHM SIMULATOR TO EVALUATE ALGORITHM OPTIONS AND DERIVE DETAILED PRODUCT ERROR BUDGETS AND UNCERTAINTY MAPS DOCUMENTING GLOBAL ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE AND PRODUCT QUALITY. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL PROVIDE ROBUST VALIDATION AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT, AND POTENTIAL IMPROVEMENT OF THE L4_C PRODUCT TO ACHIEVE AND DEMONSTRATE PRODUCT SUCCESS WITHIN THE POST-LAUNCH CAL/VAL PERIOD. I WILL PROMOTE EARLY SCIENCE APPLICATION USE OF THE L4_C PRODUCT AS A LAND SURFACE PRIOR FOR ATMOSPHERIC CO2 MODEL INVERSION STUDIES. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL INVOLVE DEMONSTRATING USE OF THE L4_C PRODUCT WITHIN THE NOAA ESRL CARBONTRACKER (CT) AND SHOWING THE LINK BETWEEN TOP-DOWN ATMOSPHERE CARBON SOURCE/SINK ACTIVITY, AND BOTTOM-UP SMAP DERIVED NET ECOSYSTEM CO2 EXCHANGE AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL PROVIDE A MEANS FOR LINKING SMAP L4_C NEE OUTPUTS AND UNDERLYING ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS WITH SYNERGISTIC CO2 OBSERVATIONS FROM SPARSE GLOBAL MONITORING NETWORKS (E.G. NOAA CMDL FLASK SITES) AND UPCOMING NASA MISSIONS, INCLUDING THE ORBITING CARBON OBSERVATORY (OCO-2). THESE ST CONTRIBUTIONS DIRECTLY ADDRESS CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE OBJECTIVES AS PUT FORTH IN THE DECADAL SURVEY, INCLUDING: 1) LINKING LANDSCAPE FT AND SOIL MOISTURE VARIABILITY TO CARBON EXCHANGE OVER NORTHERN AND GLOBAL LAND AREAS; 2) QUANTIFYING THE NET CARBON FLUX IN BOREAL LANDSCAPES, AND 3) REDUCING UNCERTAINTIES ABOUT THE PURPORTED MISSING SINK ON LAND FOR ATMOSPHERIC CO2.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AI50G  
Thursday, May 28, 2015
$143,688.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
PROVIDING CONTINUITY FOR THE MODIS LAND GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION, NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION DATASETS MY TEAM HAS NOW PRODUCED THE ALGORITHMS FOR A 13 YEAR RECORD OF GLOBAL 8-DAY GROSS PRIMARY PRODUCTION, ANNUAL NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION AND 8-DAY EVAPOTRANSPIRATION FROM TERRA MODIS AND AQUA MODIS. THESE GLOBAL DATASETS ARE UNIQUE, CURRENTLY NO ONE ELSE IS REGULARLY PRODUCING THESE DATA FROM ANY SENSOR. USES OF THESE DATA EXTEND FROM CARBON CYCLE SOURCE/SINK ANALYSIS, CARBON CREDIT CALCULATIONS, AGRICULTURAL GROWTH AND YIELD, DROUGHT MONITORING, WATER MANAGEMENT, GCM PARAMETERIZATION AND TESTING, BIOENERGY CAPACITIES, AND EVEN PLANETARY BOUNDARY THEORY. BECAUSE OF THIS HERITAGE AND WIDE USE, A FIRST PRIORITY MUST BE CONTINUITY OF THESE DATASETS AT THE HIGHEST PRECISION POSSIBLE. THIS INCLUDES ADJUSTING THESE ALGORITHMS TO CHANGES IN THE INPUT DATASTREAMS, SUCH AS LANDCOVER AND LEAF AREA INDEX, AND SENSOR DEGRADATION CORRECTIONS. IT ALSO INCLUDES RECOMPUTES WHEN NEW VERSIONS OF THE GLOBAL DAILY SURFACE METEOROLOGY FROM GEOS-5 ARE INTRODUCED. THE SECOND PRIORITY IS TO EXPLORE IMPROVEMENTS TO THE GPP AND NPP ALGORITHMS. THE GREATEST POTENTIAL FOR IMPROVEMENT WILL BE DEFINING MORE BIOME TYPES AND ALLOWING A MORE SOPHISTICATED CALCULATION OF THE CONVERSION EFFICIENCY FROM RADIANT ENERGY TO BIOMASS. NEW DATA FROM GLOBAL FLUXNET STATIONS AND OTHER SOURCES NOW ALLOWS A MUCH MORE BIOME SPECIFIC, REGIONALLY CALIBRATED AND EVEN SEASONALLY ADJUSTED .
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AI69G  
Tuesday, May 26, 2015
$505,423.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
INTELLECTUAL MERIT THE ORIGIN AND FATE OF GENETIC DIVERSITY ARE CENTRAL ORGANIZING THEMES IN BIOLOGY, CRUCIAL TO UNDERSTANDING HOW LIFE AROSE AND EVOLVED ON EARTH, AND HOW LIFE MIGHT ARISE AND EVOLVE ON OTHER WORLDS. BECAUSE ALL LIFE FORMS ENCOUNTER SEVERELY ADVERSE CONDITIONS, IT IS NOT SURPRISING THAT SELECTION HAS FAVORED THE EVOLUTION OF MECHANISMS THAT CAN INCREASE POPULATION VARIATION BY ADJUSTING MUTATION RATE. SUCH INNOVATIONS COMPLICATE THE DYNAMIC INTERPLAY OF GENETIC VARIATION, SELECTION, AND MUTATION, WHICH TOGETHER DETERMINE THE TEMPO AND TRAJECTORY OF ADAPTATION AND THE LIKELIHOOD THAT NEW SPECIES ARISE. STRESS-RELATED MUTATIONS BOTH THOSE THAT RESULT IN LOCAL CHANGES IN DNA SEQUENCE AND THOSE THAT CAUSE LARGE-SCALE CHANGES IN GENOME ARCHITECTURE ARE NOW KNOWN TO PLAY DECISIVE ROLES IN THE EMERGENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AND THE PROGRESSION OF CANCER. HERE, WE SEEK TO INVESTIGATE WHETHER THEY ALSO PLAY A ROLE IN SPECIATION ITSELF.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX14AK38G  
Wednesday, May 13, 2015
$30,000.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

T: TRAINING GRANT
RECENT SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING STUDIES AND FIELD OBSERVATIONS INDICATE LARGE CHANGES IN SURFACE WATER INUNDATION DYNAMICS ASSOCIATED WITH A WARMING CLIMATE AND DEGRADING PERMAFROST IN THE ARCTIC-BOREAL REGION (ABR). DYNAMIC CHANGES IN SURFACE WATER INUNDATION AND SOIL WETNESS REPRESENT A SUBSTANTIAL SOURCE OF UNCERTAINTY FOR QUANTIFYING HIGH LATITUDE CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) AND METHANE (CH4) FLUXES, WHICH ARE A MAJOR SOURCE OF ATMOSPHERE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN SURFACE WETNESS AND TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE VEGETATION PRODUCTIVITY, RESPIRATION PROCESSES AND CARBON (CO2 AND CH4) EMISSIONS, WHICH COLLECTIVELY DETERMINE THE NET ECOSYSTEM CARBON BUDGET (NECB). THIS RESEARCH WILL ADDRESS THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: (1) HOW WELL CAN A REMOTE SENSING-BASED MODELING APPROACH QUANTIFY SEASONAL AND DAILY CO2 AND CH4 EXCHANGE COMPARED TO FLUX TOWER OBSERVATIONS WITHIN THE ABR? (2) HOW ARE RECENT CHANGES IN WETNESS (E.G. SURFACE WATER INUNDATION), TEMPERATURE, AND NON-FROZEN PERIOD AFFECTING THE NORTHERN NECB GIVEN POTENTIALLY CONTRASTING RESPONSES IN VEGETATION PRODUCTIVITY, ECOSYSTEM CO2 RESPIRATION AND CH4 EMISSION? (3) WHAT ARE THE PATTERNS AND VARIABILITY IN CARBON SOURCE AND SINK ACTIVITY OVER THE ABR AND PERMAFROST AFFECTED LANDSCAPES, AND THE PRIMARY ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS DRIVING THIS VARIABILITY? WE WILL UTILIZE RECENTLY VALIDATED SATELLITE MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING RETRIEVALS OF DAILY FRACTIONAL OPEN WATER COVER AND LANDSCAPE FREEZE-THAW STATUS WITH OTHER LAND PARAMETERS, INCLUDING RADAR (SAR) BASED WETLAND AND LAKE MAPS, TO CLARIFY CARBON EMISSIONS FOR THE ABR BY IMPROVING REPRESENTATION OF TEMPORAL CHANGES IN SURFACE WATER EXTENT. WE WILL DERIVE TERRESTRIAL CARBON EMISSION ESTIMATES FOR THE ABR USING A REMOTE-SENSING BASED TERRESTRIAL CARBON FLUX MODEL FOR SIMULTANEOUS PREDICTION OF DAILY NET ECOSYSTEM CO2 EXCHANGE AND CH4 EMISSIONS. WE WILL PRODUCE A COMPREHENSIVE, VALIDATED RECORD OF ABR CO2 AND CH4 EXCHANGE AND ASSOCIATED UNCERTAINTY TO CLARIFY THE NORTHERN CARBON CYCLE RESPONSE TO RECENT CLIMATE VARIABILITY. INFORMATION GAINED FROM THIS STUDY WILL SUPPORT EVALUATION OF REGIONAL CARBON SOURCE/SINK ACTIVITY WITHIN THE ABR, INCLUDING CONTRIBUTIONS FROM TERRESTRIAL AND LAKE SOURCES, WHICH ADDRESSES KEY SCIENCE QUESTIONS OF THE NASA LED ARCTIC-BOREAL VULNERABILITY EXPERIMENT (ABOVE) AND CARBON IN ARCTIC RESERVOIRS VULNERABILITY EXPERIMENT (CARVE). THIS WORK WILL ALSO INFORM ALGORITHM AND CARBON CYCLE SCIENCE APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT FOR THE NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) DECADAL SURVEY MISSION.
U009: EDUCATION/TRAINING- GENERAL

  NNX13AM92H  
Tuesday, May 12, 2015
$0.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

F: COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT
THE FREEZE-THAW (FT) STATE PARAMETER DERIVED FROM SATELLITE MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING QUANTIFIES THE PREDOMINANT FROZEN OR NON-FROZEN STATE OF THE LANDSCAPE AND IS CLOSELY LINKED TO SURFACE ENERGY BUDGET AND HYDROLOGICAL ACTIVITY, SEASONAL DYNAMICS OF VEGETATION GROWTH, TERRESTRIAL CARBON BUDGETS AND LAND-ATMOSPHERE TRACE GAS EXCHANGE. WE ARE DEVELOPING A GLOBAL EARTH SYSTEM DATA RECORD OF DAILY LANDSCAPE FREEZE-THAW STATE DYNAMICS (FT-ESDR) THROUGH AN EXISTING NASA MEASURES FUNDED ACTIVITY. APPROXIMATELY THREE REPROCESSING AND FT-ESDR RELEASES ARE PLANNED UNDER THIS EFFORT, INVOLVING VARIABLE DURATION SATELLITE RECORDS AND MULTIPLE, OVERLAPPING SENSORS AND DATA SERIES. AN INITIAL FT-ESDR RELEASE IS AVAILABLE ONLINE THROUGH THE NASA NSIDC DAAC. THE INITIAL FT-ESDR HAS BEEN VERIFIED USING IN SITU TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS FROM GLOBAL WEATHER STATIONS. OTHER DATA QUALITY (QC) METRICS PROVIDE SPATIALLY CONTIGUOUS INFORMATION ON FT-ESDR ACCURACY. THE QC DATA INCLUDE POTENTIAL NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TEMPORAL GAPS IN SENSOR DATA TIME SERIES, OPEN WATER, TERRAIN AND LAND COVER HETEROGENEITY. THE CURRENT QC METHODS ACCOUNT FOR LESS THAN 25% OF THE VARIANCE IN CLASSIFICATION ACCURACY. WITH THE REMAINING ACCURACY VARIANCE BEING UNEXPLAINED, THERE IS NOTEABLE UNCERTAINTY IN THE FT-ESDR. AVAILABLE WEATHER STATION NETWORKS ARE RELATIVELY SPARSE FOR MANY AREAS AND MAY NOT ADEQUATELY REPRESENT THE GLOBAL RANGE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND FT VARIABILITY. POTENTIAL UTILITY OF OVERLAPPING, MULTI-FREQUENCY ACTIVE/PASSIVE MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING DATA ARE ALSO LARGELY UNDEFINED DUE TO LACK OF INFORMATION REGARDING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THE VARIOUS SENSOR RETRIEVALS AND ASSOCIATED ERROR SOURCES. THESE METHODS ALSO DON##T REPRESENT EXPLICIT SYSTEMATIC AND RANDOM ERROR COMPONENTS OF THE FT RETRIEVAL, INCLUDING SENSOR FOOTPRINT, FREQUENCY AND FT SENSITIVITY, TEMPORAL FIDELITY OF THE RETRIEVALS, SIGNAL DEGRADATION FROM ATMOSPHERIC EFFECTS, IN SITU MEASUREMENT ERROR AND SATELLITE OVERPASS TIMING. WE PROPOSE TO CONDUCT DETAILED SENSITIVITY AND ERROR ANALYSES OF THE FT-ESDR FOR IMPROVED QUANTIFICATION AND ATTRIBUTION OF FT RETRIEVAL UNCERTAINTIES, INVOLVING MULTIPLE SENSOR DATA RECORDS, WITH VARIABLE FREQUENCIES, POLARIZATIONS, OVERPASSES, SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND TEMPORAL SAMPLING. THE SATELLITE ACTIVE/PASSIVE DATA RECORDS TO BE INVESTIGATED INCLUDE THE SCANNING MULTI-CHANNEL MICROWAVE RADIOMETER (SMMR), SPECIAL SENSOR MICROWAVE IMAGER (SSM/I), ADVANCED MICROWAVE SCANNING RADIOMETER ON EOS (AMSR-E), SEAWINDS-ON-QUIKSCAT, ERS-1/2 SCATTEROMETERS, THE ADVANCED SCATTEROMETER (ASCAT), AND THE SOIL MOISTURE AND OCEAN SALINITY (SMOS) MISSION. COLLECTIVELY THESE DATA ENABLE A POTENTIAL FT-ESDR RECORD SPANNING MORE THAN 30-YEARS. WE WILL APPLY A SUITE OF FORWARD RADAR BACKSCATTER AND MICROWAVE EMISSIONS MODELS TO DETERMINE MICROWAVE SENSITIVITY TO INDIVIDUAL AND CUMULATIVE ERROR SOURCES, AND TRACK RESULTING ERROR PROPAGATION THROUGH THE FT RETRIEVAL ALGORITHMS AND RESULTING CLASSIFICATION RESULTS. WE WILL CONDUCT SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALE DEGRADATION EXERCISES USING EXISTING MULTI-SCALE SATELLITE MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING RECORDS TO QUANTIFY SPATIAL RESOLUTION AND TEMPORAL FIDELITY COMPONENTS OF FT CLASSIFICATION UNCERTAINTY. THESE ACTIVITIES WILL ENABLE NEW FT ALGORITHMS AND CLASSIFICATIONS USING ENSEMBLE MEASUREMENTS FROM MULTIPLE ACTIVE/PASSIVE MICROWAVE SENSORS, FREQUENCIES AND POLARIZATIONS. WE WILL ALSO EXPLOIT NEW DATA SOURCES FROM UPCOMING FT FIELD CAMPAIGNS UNDER THE SMOS AND NASA SOIL MOISTURE ACTIVE PASSIVE (SMAP) DECADAL SURVEY MISSIONS; THESE DATA WILL BE APPLIED WITH EXISTING MEASUREMENT NETWORKS FOR FORWARD MODEL CALIBRATION AND FT VALIDATION. SENSITIVITY STUDIES WILL BE CONDUCTED USING BOTH MODEL SIMULATIONS AND SATELLITE AND IN SITU NETWORK MEASUREMENTS. THE RESULTS OF THIS WORK WILL INCLUDE AN IMPROVED GLOBAL FT-ESDR WITH WELL QUANTIFIED ACCURACY, INCLUDING A DETAILED ERROR BUDGET FOR THE FT MEASUREMENT.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX11AP68A  
Thursday, May 7, 2015
$9,500.00
1400: Department of the Interior
00001: OFFICE OF ACQUISITION AND GRANTS - NATIONAL

B: PURCHASE ORDER
NACCB CONFERENCE 2014 IGF::OT::IGF
U005: EDUCATION/TRAINING- TUITION/REGISTRATION/MEMBERSHIP FEES

  ING15PX00697  
Monday, May 4, 2015
$8,000.00
1200: Department of Agriculture
03R6: R1, LOLO NATIONAL FOREST

B: PURCHASE ORDER
DATA ANALYSIS SUPPORT W/ SPECIALIZED SPATIAL STATISTICS NEEDED. IGF::OT::IGF
B524: SPECIAL STUDIES/ANALYSIS- MATHEMATICAL/STATISTICAL

  AG03R6P150088  
Monday, April 27, 2015
$15,500.00
8000: National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NSSC0: NASA SHARED SERVICES CENTER

G: GRANT FOR RESEARCH
LOW FIRST-IONIZATION-POTENTIAL (FIP) ELEMENTS EXPERIENCE RELATIVELY LITTLE FRACTIONATION IN ALL TYPES OF SOLAR WIND. BY CONTRAST, HIGH-FIP ELEMENTS ARE VARIABLY DEPLETED IN THE SOLAR WIND. THE DEPLETION APPEARS TO VARY OVER THE SOLAR CYCLE AND BY REGIME. IN ORDER TO CONNECT GENESIS MISSION-MEASURED ABUNDANCES BACK TO SOLAR ABUNDANCES, ESPECIALLY FOR THESE HIGH-FIP ELEMENTS, WE PROPOSE TO MEASURE THE ABUNDANCES OF C, N, AND O--THREE KEY HIGH-FIP ELEMENTS--IN THE DIFFERENT REGIME COLLECTORS TO UNDERSTAND THEIR BEHAVIOR IN THE DIFFERENT REGIMES. THIS HAS BEEN DONE FOR THE LIGHT NOBLE GASES, BUT C, N, AND O COVER A DIFFERENT REGION OF THE FIP PLOT, CLOSER TO THE LOW-FIP ELEMENTS BUT STILL CLEARLY FRACTIONATED RELATIVE TO THEM, BASED ON BULK WIND MEASUREMENTS.IN ADDITION, WE PROPOSE TO QUANTITATIVELY DETERMINE THE CHANGES IN FIP FRACTIONATION OVER THE COURSE OF THE SOLAR CYCLE. NEW RESULTS FROM THE ACE MISSION, JUST REPORTED LATE LAST YEAR, SHOW CLEAR NE/O FRACTIONATION CHANGES OVER THE COURSE OF THE CYCLE. GENESIS COLLECTED SOLAR WIND OVER THE SOLAR MAXIMUM AND THE FIRST PART OF THE DECLINING PHASE. BY COMPARING THE ACE DATA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO THIS TIME PERIOD, WE CAN DETERMINE THE NEEDED CORRECTIONS TO OBTAIN THE SOLAR-CYCLE-AVERAGED COMPOSITIONS, HELPING US TO DETERMINE THE TRUE SOLAR COMPOSITIONS. THESE CORRECTIONS WILL EXTEND TO ISOTOPIC RATIOS FOR WHICH GENESIS PROVIDES A UNIQUE WINDOW INTO SOLAR COMPOSITIONS. BY PROVIDING DATA TO IMPROVE THE UNDERSTANDING OF ELEMENTAL FRACTIONATION, WE EXPECT IMPROVED SOLAR-WIND ACCELERATION THEORIES TO COMPREHENSIVELY PREDICT CORRECTIONS FOR ISOTOPIC FRACTIONATIONS AS WELL.
AR21: R&D- SPACE: SCIENCE/APPLICATIONS (BASIC RESEARCH)

  NNX15AG19G